Chapter 16 Fungi

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Chapter 16 Fungi

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1. Chapter 16 Fungi

3. Structure 4. Eukaryotic cells 5. NO typical multicellular fungi A. f16.2, p374 B. mushrooms have: 1. Stipe 2. Annulus 3. Cap

4. Structure 6. Hyphae - individual filaments in multicellular forms A. tubules filled with cytoplasm and nuclei B. some divided into segments by walls - septa C. septa have holes for movement of materials D. some filaments lack septa

5. Structure 7. Hyphae are the living, growing part of the fungi A. can weave together in different ways B. may grow up to 35-40m per hour 8. Mycelium - mass of tangled interwoven hyphae; forms the body of the fungus A.f16.2, p375

6. Nutrition 1. Heterotrophic 2. Extracellular digestion using enzymes and then absorption of nutrients into the hyphae 3. Saprophytes - digest and absorb nutrients from dead organisms A. most fungi 4. Other fungi are: A. parasitic B. mutualistic C. predators

7. Growth 1. Most nutrients used for growth 2. Growth is rapid & efficient 3. Movement through mycelium is rapid because hyphae share the same cytoplasm 4. Growth occurs at the tips A. length increases, not diameter

8. Origin of Fungi 1. Mycologists - study fungi 2. May have evolved 400 x 106 years ago from protists 3. Differ from plants in several ways: A. plants have cell walls of cellulose; most fungi have cell walls of chitin B. plants are autotrophs; fungi are heterotrophs

9. Origin 4. Four divisions based on reproduction: A. molds, sac fungi, and club fungi classified based on structures used in sexual reproduction B. imperfect fungi have only been observed reproducing asexually

10. Origin 5. Asexual reproduction in four groups occurs by: A. budding - parent cell divides and produces offspring by forming a small bud that separates (yeasts) B. regeneration - piece of a mycelium breaks off and grows on its own C. spore production - reproductive cells that can remain dormant 6. Fruiting bodies - above ground stalks that support the spore forming structures A. f16.9, p379

11. Origin 7. Sexual reproduction occurs in molds, sac fungi, and club fungi A. NO male or female B. 2 mating types of hyphae (+) and (-) C. reproduction involves fusion of + and - types to form spores; these spores are genetically different from asexual spores

12. Division: Zycomycota 1. Common molds (bread mold, mildew) 2. Most found frequently in soil or on dead animals and plants 3. Hyphae lack septa 4. Hyphae have specialized structures: A. rhizoids B. stolons C. sporangia

14. Zycomycota 5. Rhizoids - absorb nutrients and hold common molds to food source 6. Stolons - connect groups of rhizoids A. transport cytoplasm through the fungal body

15. Zycomycota 7. Sporangia - produce spores during reproduction A. produce haploid (n) spores during asexual reproduction 8. Zygospore - forms from fusion of a + and - mating type spore to form a diploid (2n) cell A. may remain dormant for many years B. f16.10, p380

17. Division: Ascomycota 1. Sac fungi 2. Unicellular yeasts, powdery mildews, most lichens, morels (bird’s nest) 3. Over 60,000 species 4. Ascus - sac like structure formed during sexual reproduction A. f16.13, p381

18. Ascomycota 5. Ascogonium - formed when two mating types fuse and form a cell A. hyphae then grow upward B. asci - form at the tip to produce spores with new genetic combinations C. sexual reproduction is rare

21. Division: Basidiomycota 1. Club fungi 2. Mushrooms 3. Reproduce mostly by sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction is rare A. f16.15, p382 4. Visible parts of mushroom (stalk, cap, gills) made of mycelia A. form fruiting bodies that contain basidia - spore producing structures

24. Division: Deuteromycota 1. Imperfect fungi 2. Only appear to reproduce asexually 3. Athlete’s foot; ringworm; Penicillium 4. Produce asexual spores called conidia in specialized hyphae called conidiophores

25. Fungi in the Biosphere 1. Recyclers in the ecosystem 2. Symbiotic relationships: A. mutualism - Lichen - usually a sac fungus and a green alga or cyanobacterium; large size indicates extreme age 3. Mycorrhizae - fungus that grows on or in roots of plants; mutualism A. act as root extensions for plant; receive nutrients from plant B. found on more than 90% of trees and 80% of all other plants

26. Diseases 1. Plant diseases A. smuts B. rusts 2. Human diseases A. athlete’s foot B. ringworm C. thrush

27. Human Uses 1. Food 2. Molds in cheeses 3. Aspergillus - used to make soy sauce and citric acid 4. Yeasts 5. Penicillium 6. Genetic engineering tools

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