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Break-Out Session Probation Part II. Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision. American Probation and Parole Association Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide, 2nd Edition

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Break-Out SessionProbation Part II


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Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision

American Probation and Parole Association

  • Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide, 2nd Edition

  • Sex Offender Community Based Supervision: Case Management Strategies and Tools


Evidence based electronic monitoring of sex offenders cont l.jpg
Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

  • Technology

    • Rapidly evolving

    • Legislation = active GPS

  • Technology offers one more tool

    • Combined with others

    • Means to end = structured containment

    • Not the end

  • Provides WINDOW into offender’s life


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    Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Many electronic tools for sex offenders

    • Technology

      • Radio frequency

      • Location tracking

      • Computer monitoring and forensics

      • Crime and GPS data integration

      • Polygraph

      • Others


    Radio frequency martha stewart s model l.jpg
    Radio Frequency: Martha Stewart’s Model Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision


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    Radio Frequency Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision


    Radio frequency cont l.jpg
    Radio Frequency Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Home arrest

    • Curfew monitoring

    • Judge Love (Albuquerque, NM)

    • 1983

      • By 1990 in 50 states

      • Several countries

    • Repairs

    • False positives of violations


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    Radio Frequency Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Drive-by units

    • Random calling

      • Identity verification

      • Slow scan photos

      • Electronic voice analysis

      • Remote alcohol detection (late 1980s)


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    Location Tracking Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision


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    Late 1990s Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision

    Cellular Technology

    24 Satellites

    U.S. Department of Defense

    Active and Passive

    Exclusion Zones

    Workload Differences

    Liability

    Legislation

    Electronic Alibi

    Location Tracking [cont.]


    Location tracking cont11 l.jpg
    Location Tracking Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]


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    Polygraph and More Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision


    Polygraph and more cont l.jpg
    Polygraph and More Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]


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    Where’s the Evidence? Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision

    • Does electronic monitoring work?

    • Does electronic monitoring reduce recidivism?

    • Does electronic monitoring improve case management?

    • How do we know?


    Where s the evidence cont l.jpg
    Where’s the Evidence? Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Little research - weak methodologies

    • Mixed results

      • Better for some populations

      • Differences across types of offenders

    • What is purpose of electronic monitoring?

      • Punishment?

      • Accountability?

      • Behavior change?


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    Where’s the Evidence? Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Not a FIX

      • Electronic Monitoring does not replace OFFICER

      • ONE Tool

        • Incorporated with other TOOLS

        • Create highly structured CONTAINMENT


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    Evidence Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Finn and Muirhead Steves (2002)

      • High-risk male parolees

      • Electronic monitoring showed no impact after four years

      • Sex offenders on electronic monitoring

        • Less likely to return to prison

        • Longer survival in community


    Evidence cont18 l.jpg
    Evidence Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Bonta, Wallace-Capretta, & Rooney (2000)

      • Electronic Monitoring + Treatment

      • LOWER recidivism for high-risk

      • No effect on lower risk

        • Match offender to interventions

        • Low-risk in high-risk setting

        • More recidivism


    Evidence cont19 l.jpg
    Evidence Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Padgett, Bales, & Blomberg

      • 75,661 (RF and GPS)

    • Electronic monitoring of offenders in the community may prove an effective public safety alternative to prison


    Evidence cont20 l.jpg
    Evidence Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Revocation for technical violation

      • RF = 95.7% less likely

      • GPS = 90.2% less likely

      • SO = slightly less likely

    • Absconding

      • RF = 91.2% less likely

      • GPS = 90.2% less likely

      • SO = 42% less likely


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    Evidence Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Revocation for new crime

      • RF = 95% less likely

      • GPS = 95% less likely

      • SO = 44.8% less likely


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    Implications Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision


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    Implications Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Consider workload

      • Repairs and malfunctions

      • Responding to alerts

    • Consider liability

      • Active GPS

      • Constant information

      • Must process information


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    Implications Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Consider offender type

      • Location tracking = high-risk sex offender

      • Curfew monitoring = lower-risk offenders

    • Consider cost

      • RF = $1.97

      • Active GPS = $8.97

      • Prison = $51.22


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    Implications Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Improve performance

      • Short-term management

      • Treatment completion

    • No behavior change

      • Lack long-term

      • Lack cognitive-behavioral adjustment


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    Implications Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision[cont.]

    • Integrate TOOLS

      • Not a panacea

      • Highly structured = external control

        • Containment of offender’s life

      • Overall strategy of ACCOUNTABILITY

    • Legislation

      • Mandating active GPS


    Evidence based electronic monitoring of sex offenders l.jpg
    Evidence-Based Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community Supervision

    Contact Information:

    Matthew T. DeMichele

    Research Associate

    American Probation and Parole Association

    c/o The Council of State Governments

    2760 Research Park Drive

    Lexington, Kentucky 40578-1910

    859-244-8123 (phone)

    859-244-8001 (fax)

    [email protected]


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    Questions and Technology, Evidence, and Implications for Community SupervisionComments


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