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THE FIVE KINGDOMS Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food BACTERIA Bacteria - small one celled monerans Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment They are found almost everywhere:

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Introduction to Bacteria

  • 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA:

    • Bacteria

      • -Get food from an outside source

    • Blue-green Bacteria

      • -Make their own food


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BACTERIA

  • Bacteria -small one celled monerans

  • Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment

    They are found almost everywhere:

  • -water -air

  • -soil -food

  • -skin -inside the body

  • -on most objects


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3 Shapes of Bacteria

Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups:

Spiral:

spirilla

rod-shaped:bacilli, bacillus

Round:

cocci


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Bacillus anthracis – (bacillus)

Neisseria meningitidis (coccus)

Leptospira interrogans – (spirilla)

3 Shapes of Bacteria


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

  • Capsule

  • Cell wall

  • Ribosomes

  • Nucleoid

  • Flagella

  • Pilli

  • Cytoplasm


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Capsule

  • keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Cell wall

  • Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Ribosomes

  • cell part where proteins are made

  • Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Nucleoid

  • a ring made up of DNA


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Flagella

  • a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion



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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Pilli

  • hollow hair-like structures made of protein

  • allows bacteria to attach to other cells.

  • Pilli-singular

  • Pillus-plural


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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Cytoplasm

  • clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell


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Reproduction of Bacteria

  • Binary Fission-the process of one organism dividing into two organisms

  • Fission is a type of asexual reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction-reproduction of a living thing from only one parent

How?...

The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself

Then it divides into two


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Reproduction of Bacteria

BINARY FISSION

Completed

Bacteria dividing


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Reproduction of Bacteria

  • The time of reproduction depends on how desirable the conditions are

  • Bacteria can rapidly reproduce themselves in warm, dark, and moist conditions

  • Some can reproduce every 20 minutes

    • (one bacteria could be an ancestor to one million bacteria in six hours)


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Bacterial Cell & Nucleiod DNA Ring

DNA replication

Cell wall synthesis

Binary Fission

Cell separation


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Bacteria Survival

  • Endospore-

  • a thick celled structure that forms inside

  • the cell

  • they are the major cause of food poisoning

  • allows the bacteria to survive for many years

  • they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions

  • it encloses all the nuclear materials

  • and some cytoplasm


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Bacteria Survival

Bacillus subtilis

Endospore-the black section in the middle

  • highly resistant structures

  • can withstand radiation, UV light, and boiling at 120oC for 15 minutes.


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Bacteria Survival – Food sources

  • parasites–bacteria that feed on living things

  • saprophytes–use dead materials for food (exclusively)

  • decomposers –get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals

    • important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them


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Harmful Bacteria

  • some bacteria cause diseases

  • Animals can pass diseases to humans

  • Communicable Disease –

  • Disease passed from one organism to another

  • This can happen in several ways:

  • Air

  • Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush

  • Drinking water that contains bacteria


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Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas)


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Helpful Bacteria

  • Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow

  • Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay

  • Most are used to make antibiotics

  • Some bacteria help make insulin

  • Used to make industrial chemicals


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Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines


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Helpful Bacteria

  • Used to treat sewage

    • Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.

  • foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk


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Controlling Bacteria

3 ways to control bacteria:

1) Canning-the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria

  • endospores are killed during this process

2) Pasteurization-process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria

3) Dehydration-removing water from food

  • Bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed

  • example: uncooked noodles & cold cereal


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Controlling Bacteria

Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants

Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living things

  • means – “against infection”

Examples: iodine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, soap, mouthwash

Disinfectants- stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things


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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

Autotrophs – make their own food through photosynthesis

  • larger than most bacterial cells

  • commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams

  • Some live in salt water, snow, and acid water of hot springs

  • food source for animals that live in the water


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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • can be toxic to humans and animals

Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water



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Bacteria Survival

  • Endospore-

  • a thick celled structure that forms inside

  • the cell

  • it encloses all the nuclear materials

  • and some cytoplasm

  • They can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions

  • Allows the bacteria to survive for many years


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Bacteria Survival – Food sources

  • parasites–bacteria that feed on living things

  • saprophytes–use dead materials for food

  • decomposers –get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals

    • important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them


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Harmful Bacteria

  • some bacteria cause diseases

  • Animals can pass diseases to humans

  • Communicable Disease –

  • Disease passed from one organism to another

  • This can happen in several ways:

  • Air

  • Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush

  • Drinking water that contains bacteria


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Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas)


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Helpful Bacteria

  • Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow

  • Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay

  • Most are sued to make antibiotics

  • Some bacteria help make insulin

  • Used to make industrial chemicals


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Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines



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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • Make their own food through photosynthesis

  • Bigger than most bacterial cells

  • Commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams


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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA

  • It can be toxic to humans and animals

  • Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water




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Bacillus anthracis - rod, vegetative stage prokaryote (bacterium)Image Number: 21185A


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Neisseria meningitidis - coccus prokaryote (bacterium)Image Number: 97214E


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Leptospira interrogans - spiral shaped prokaryote (spirochete)


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Strep animation

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/strep_pneumo_qt.html

Ecoli movement animatoin

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html


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Ecoli movement animatoin

http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html


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HIV movie

http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/Video/HIV.mov


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