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For the time will come when men will not put up with sound doctrine. Instead, to suit their own desires, they will gather around them a great number of teachers to say what their itching ears want to hear. They will turn their ears away from the truth and turn aside to myths. (2 Timothy 4:3-4)



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Atheists’ Claims Heavens

The Bible teaches that the earth was “flat and circular sitting on pillars with a rotating solid sky dome overhead which carried the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars and allowed water to leak through ‘windows of heaven’ or sluice gates to form clouds and rain.”

http://www.goatstar.org/the-bibles-flat-earthsolid-sky-dome-universe/


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Heaven of Heavens Heavens

Ocean of Heavens

Moon

Sun

Stars

Firmament

Pillars of Heaven

Earth

Underworld

Primeval

Ocean

Pillars of Earth



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Sumerian Cosmology Heavens

  • Heaven (An) and the earth (Ki) were formed within primeval sea (Abzu), which existed before anything else.

  • The boundary between the primeval sea and the earth (a flat disk) was a solid vault, within which was the gas-like atmosphere (Lil).

  • The stars, planets, sun, and moon were embedded in this solid vault.

  • Four major Sumerian deities

    • An (god of heaven)

    • Ki (goddess of earth)

    • Enlil (god of the air, son of An and Ki)

    • Enki (god of the primeval sea)


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Greeks Heavens

  • The Greek philosopher Anaximenes described the heavens as like a felt cap that turned on its head, with the stars fixed to this surface like nails.

Anaximenes. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://www.iep.utm.edu/a/anaximen.htm)


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Jews Heavens

  • Flavius Josephus:

    “After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews.”


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Jews Heavens

  • Jewish Talmud:

    “The learned of Israel say, ‘The sphere stands firm, and the planets revolve’; the learned of the nations say, ‘The sphere moves, and the planets stand firm.’ The learned of Israel say, ‘The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night above the firmament’; the learned of the nations say, ‘The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night beneath the earth.’ ”


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Christians Heavens

  • Theophilus of Antioch:

    “For the Spirit being one, and holding the place of light, was between the water and the heaven, in order that the darkness might not in any way communicate with the heaven, which was nearer God, before God said, ‘Let there be light.’ The heaven, therefore, being like a dome-shaped covering, comprehended matter which was like a clod.”


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Christians Heavens

  • Book of Enoch:

    “And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me.”


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Christians Heavens


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Islam Heavens

  • Quran:

    • The heavens and the earth were once joined together as one unit before it was split into two parts (Surah 21:30)

    • Allah created seven heavens and the stars are found in the lowest heaven (Surah 65:12, 67:3-5, 41:12)

    • Earth is like a carpet, held in place by the heavy mountains, described as being like tent pegs, so that it won't move or shake (Surah 71:19-20, 78:6-7, 31:10)


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The Bible Heavens


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The Firmament Heavens

  • Found in the KJV Bible

  • Refers to a solid structure?

    • And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so… (Genesis 1:6-8, KJV)


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“Firmament” Heavens

  • Comes from the Latin word firmamentum, from Jerome's Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible

  • Firmamentum has the meaning of a “support” or “prop”

  • Open and shut case that the Bible refers to the heavens as a solid object?


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HeavensRaqia”

  • Hebrew noun (רקיע) from the verb raqa (רקע), which means "beat," "stamp," "beat out" and "spread out.“

  • Raqa:

    • stamp one's feet" (2)

    • stamp something with the feet (1)

    • spreading metal (4)

    • spreading out the earth (3)

    • spreading the sky or the clouds (1)


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HeavensRaqia”

  • Used 17 times in the Old Testament

  • Eleven times in 7 verses from Genesis 1

  • Five times in Ezekiel's visions - once referring to the extent of the angels' wings and the other four referring to something that appeared to be like a gleaming crystal, although it is never identified as being a solid object

  • Two times in the Psalms, once referring to the expanse as described in Genesis, and the second referring to the mighty expanse of God's power.

  • So, raqia itself does not always refer to a solid object.


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HeavensRaqia”

  • Defined by God in Genesis 1:8:

    • God called the expanse [raqia] heaven…

  • So, the raqia is nothing more than heaven itself and does not comprise a separate structure

  • Genesis 1:20:

    • "... let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse [raqia] of the heavens”

  • It is unclear how birds can fly through a solid dome!


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Ocean of Heavens Heavens

Firmament

Earth

Underworld

Pillars of Earth

Pillars of the Heavens

  • Skeptics say that the “pillars of the heavens” refer to pillars that hold up the dome heavens.

  • Job 26:

    • He spreads out the northern skies over empty space; he suspends the earth over nothing. (Job 26:7)

    • He wraps up the waters in his clouds, yet the clouds do not burst under their weight. (Job 26:8)

    • He covers the face of the full moon, spreading his clouds over it. (Job 26:9)

    • He marks out the horizon on the face of the waters for a boundary between light and darkness. (Job 26:10)

    • The pillars of the heavens quake, aghast at his rebuke. (Job 26:11)

Pillars of Heaven

Pillars of Heaven


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Pillars of the Heavens Heavens

  • From the Hebrew word ammûd (עמוד)

  • Pillar of cloud/fire (Exodus 13:21)

  • Suspended the veil of the temple (Exodus 26:32)

  • Knocked down by Samson (Judges 16)

  • Column of smoke (Judges 20:40)

  • Solomon’s palace (1 Kings 7)


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Pillars of Solomon’s Temple Heavens

  • 2 Chronicles 3:15


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The Pillars of the Heavens are the Mountains Heavens

The Bible associates quaking or shaking with the mountains:

Psalms 46:3; Isaiah 54:10; Isaiah 64:1; Nahum 1:5;


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Ocean of Heavens Heavens

Firmament

Ends of the Earth

Pillars of Heaven

Earth

Underworld

Primeval

Ocean

Pillars of Earth

The Ends of the Earth

  • of the gods of the peoples who are around you, near you or far from you, from one end of the earth to the other end), (Deuteronomy 13:7)

  • If the earth has “ends,” doesn’t that imply it is flat?


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The Ends of the Earth Heavens

  • “Earth” is the translation of Hebrew erets (ארץ)

  • land (1581), earth (655), ground (119), lands (57), country (44), countries (15)


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Erets Often Refers to People Heavens

  • Shall not the Judge of all the earth [erets] deal justly? (Genesis 18:25)

  • …His judgments are in all the earth [erets]. (1 Chronicles 16:14)

  • Sing to the LORD, all the earth [erets] (1 Chronicles 16:23)

  • Tremble before Him, all the earth [erets] (1 Chronicles 16:30)

  • Let all the earth [erets] fear the LORD (Psalm 33:8)

  • Shout joyfully to God, all the earth [erets] (Psalm 66:1)

  • All the earth [erets] will worship Thee... (Psalm 66:4)

  • …Sing to the LORD, all the earth [erets]. (Psalm 96:1)

  • Worship the LORD in holy attire; Tremble before Him, all the earth [erets]. (Psalm 96:9)

  • The whole earth [erets] is at rest and is quiet; They break forth into shouts of joy. (Isaiah 14:7)


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Erets Refers to Local Land Heavens

  • …he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth [erets] (Genesis 18:2)

  • Now may God give you of the dew of heaven, And of the fatness of the earth [erets]… (Genesis 27:28)

  • And the people of all the earth [erets] came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph... (Genesis 41:57)

  • Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down to the earth [erets]. And the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt. (Exodus 9:23)

  • and the earth [erets] opened its mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men who belonged to Korah with their possessions. (Numbers 16:32)

  • So they would camp against them and destroy the produce of the earth [erets] as far as Gaza. (Judges 6:4)

  • And all the earth [erets] was seeking the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom which God had put in his heart. (1 Kings 10:24)


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The Ends of the Earth Heavens

  • of the gods of the peoples who are around you, near you or far from you, from one end of the to the other end), (Deuteronomy 13:7)

land

earth


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The Four Corners of the Earth Heavens

  • And He … will gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. (Isaiah 11:12, NASB)

  • If the earth has “corners,” doesn’t that imply it is flat?


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The Four “Corners” of the Earth Heavens

  • The four “corners” refer to the points of the compass - north, south, east, and west

  • The Hebrew word is kanaph (כּנף), which refers to the wing of birds

  • Other English translations use the word “quarters,” “directions,” “wings,” and “all over”



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The Molten Mirror Heavens

  • Can you, with Him, spread out the skies, strong as a molten mirror? (Job 37:18)

  • Doesn’t this verse imply that the skies are solid?


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The Molten Mirror Heavens

  • “Skies” does not come from the usual Hebrew word for “skies” or “heaven,” shamayim, but from shachaq

  • In context, the passage is referring to a storm, referring to “clouds,” “lightning,” and “darkness”


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The Molten Mirror Heavens

  • The Hebrew word rei (ראי), translated “mirror” is found nowhere else in the Old Testament

  • Rei comes from the Hebrew verb raah (ראה), which means “to appear” or “to see”

  • The Greek Septuagint translation (3rd century BC) of this verse used the Greek word horasis (ὅρασις), which means “appearance”


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The Molten Mirror Heavens

  • Can you, with Him, spread out the mighty clouds, with a molten appearance? (Job 37:18)

  • In addition, the sermon given by Elihu (Job 37) was immediately rebuked by God in chapter 38, who says “Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?” (Job 38:2)


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The Vaulted Dome Heavens

  • The One who builds His upper chambers in the heavens And has founded His vaulted dome over the earth... (Amos 9:6, NASB)


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The Vaulted Dome Heavens

  • It is he that buildeth his stories in the heaven, and hath founded his troop in the earth... (Amos 9:6, KJV)

  • he who builds his lofty palace in the heavens and sets its foundation on the earth... (Amos 9:6, NIV)

  • He built his palace in the heavens and let its foundations rest on the earth... (Amos 9:6, CEV)

  • He that buildeth his ascension in heaven, and hath founded his bundle upon the earth... (Amos 9:6, DRB)

  • It is he that builds his ascent up to the sky, and establishes his promise on the earth... (Amos 9:6, LXX)


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The Vaulted Dome Heavens

  • The Hebrew word in question is aguddah (אגדּה), meaning a “band” or “bunch”:

    • "And you shall take a bunch [aguddah] of hyssop and dip it in the blood which is in the basin..." (Exodus 12:22)

    • And the sons of Benjamin gathered together behind Abner and became one band [aguddah], and they stood on the top of a certain hill. (2 Samuel 2:25)

    • this not the fast which I choose, To loosen the bonds of wickedness, To undo the bands [aguddah] of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And break every yoke?" (Isaiah 58:6)


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The Vaulted Dome Heavens

The One who builds His upper chambers in the heavens And has founded His band [of people] over the earth... (Amos 9:6)


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Biblical Cosmology Heavens

  • Time had a beginning (1 Corinthians 2:7, 2 Timothy 1:9, Titus 1:2, Jude 1:25)

  • The universe had a beginning. (Genesis 1:1, 2:4, Isaiah 42:5, 45:12, 18, Colossians 1:16, Revelation 4:11)

  • The universe was created from the invisible. (Hebrews 11:3)

  • The dimensions of the universe were created. (Romans 8:38-39)

  • The universe is expanding. (Job 9:8, Psalm 104:2, Isaiah 40:22, 42:5, 44:24, 45:12, 48:13, 51:13, Jeremiah 10:12, 51:15, Zechariah 12:1)

  • Creation of matter and energy has ended in the universe (refutes steady-state theory). (Genesis 2:3-4)

  • The universe is winding down and will "wear out" (Psalm 102:25-27, Romans 8:21)

  • The heavens rule over the earth (refutes geocentrism) (Job 38:33)


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Biblical Cosmology Heavens

  • Three heavens:

    • Raqia – the atmosphere

    • The “highest heavens” – Where the Sun, moon and stars exist

    • The “third heaven” – God’s abode, outside of the universe


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Conclusion Heavens

  • Biblical cosmology is amazingly accurate, and does not teach geocentrism or flat earth theology

  • The atheist claim that the Bible teaches that the earth was a flat circle covered by a solid dome heavens is a myth


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More Atheist Myths Heavens

GodAndScience.org


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More In-Depth Research Papers Heavens

  • The Bible Teaches a Flat Earth Covered by a Solid Dome

  • False Teachings in the Bible?

  • Science Contradicts the Bible? Accurate Biblical Descriptions of Scientific Principles