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A2 Physical Education. Catastrophe Theory. Catastrophe theory. A. Optimum arousal. Extreme Decline. Performance. D. C. B. Arousal. Catastrophe Theory. Modification to the inverted U hypothesis

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a2 physical education

A2 Physical Education

Catastrophe Theory


Catastrophe theory


Optimum arousal

Extreme Decline






catastrophe theory
Catastrophe Theory
  • Modification to the inverted U hypothesis
  • Both argue that if arousal increases it will have a positive effect on performance to a certain point
  • Combination of high physiological arousal with high cognitive anxiety levels – players become upset to the detriment of the game
catastrophe theory1
Catastrophe Theory
  • Deterioration is much more extreme
  • Can not be put right by merely calming down
  • Going over the top!
  • Ability to concentrate
  • Recovery can be very difficult
  • Requires mental toughness
key to figure
Key to Figure
  • Point A- Cognitive anxiety - reaching this threshold creates a catastrophic effect
  • Point B – performers continue with deterioration caused by over arousal May continue to Point C
  • Point B they get to grips with the problem performance will move towards Point D
achievement motivation revision
Achievement Motivation (Revision)
  • Questions
  • Why do some learners/performers achieve and some don’t ?
  • Why are some performers are driven to be more competitive?
  • The need to achieve is a relatively stable disposition to strive for success
achievement motivation revision1
Achievement Motivation (Revision)
  • Introduced by Murray (1938)
  • 20 different motives or needs
  • Achievement is linked to personality of the performer
  • Competitive or Achievement orientated
  • Gill (1986)
  • A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persists in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments
atkinson s personality components
Atkinson\'s Personality Components
  • Ability to balance two underlying motives
  • The need to achieve success
  • The need to avoid failure
situational component
Situational Component
  • The probability of success along with
  • The incentive value of that success


Atkinson’s suggested relationship between success and the incentive value

Incentive value of success



Probability of sucess

examples and formula
Examples and Formula
  • Average player v Professional = probability of success LOW
  • Incentive value of winning for the average is high = satisfaction
  • MS – Maf x PS x I – P
  • Motive to succeed Motive to avoid failure Probability of Success Incentive value of success
outcome goal orientation
Outcome Goal Orientation
  • Motivated by winning and beating the opposition enjoy feelings from competing and comparing.
  • Ego boosted
  • High expectations for the future
task goal orientation
Task Goal Orientation
  • Want to win
  • Not so interested in comparison to others
  • Developing own technical advances
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Do fear failure
stages of motivation
Stages of Motivation
  • Describe Veroffs sequential stages
  • 1. Autonomous competence
  • 2. Social comparison stage
  • 3 Integrated stage
  • List the factors which may influence achievement motivation
attribution theory
Attribution Theory
  • Perception of causes to behaviour and outcomes
  • Complete activity 9 and 10 page 451 core text book

Internal Attributions



Task Difficulty

Stable attributions


Unstable attributions



Please complete activity 11 page 452 core text

self serving bias
Self–Serving Bias
  • Take credit for success
  • Disassociation of failure
  • Blaming External factors
  • Success attributed to internal factors ------ & ---------?
  • Do performers attribute poor performance to external factors?