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A2 Physical Education. Catastrophe Theory. Catastrophe theory. A. Optimum arousal. Extreme Decline. Performance. D. C. B. Arousal. Catastrophe Theory. Modification to the inverted U hypothesis

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A2 physical education

A2 Physical Education

Catastrophe Theory

Catastrophe theory


Optimum arousal

Extreme Decline






Catastrophe theory
Catastrophe Theory

  • Modification to the inverted U hypothesis

  • Both argue that if arousal increases it will have a positive effect on performance to a certain point

  • Combination of high physiological arousal with high cognitive anxiety levels – players become upset to the detriment of the game

Catastrophe theory1
Catastrophe Theory

  • Deterioration is much more extreme

  • Can not be put right by merely calming down

  • Going over the top!

  • Ability to concentrate

  • Recovery can be very difficult

  • Requires mental toughness

Key to figure
Key to Figure

  • Point A- Cognitive anxiety - reaching this threshold creates a catastrophic effect

  • Point B – performers continue with deterioration caused by over arousal May continue to Point C

  • Point B they get to grips with the problem performance will move towards Point D

Achievement motivation revision
Achievement Motivation (Revision)

  • Questions

  • Why do some learners/performers achieve and some don’t ?

  • Why are some performers are driven to be more competitive?

  • The need to achieve is a relatively stable disposition to strive for success

Achievement motivation revision1
Achievement Motivation (Revision)

  • Introduced by Murray (1938)

  • 20 different motives or needs

  • Achievement is linked to personality of the performer

  • Competitive or Achievement orientated

  • Gill (1986)

  • A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persists in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments

Atkinson s personality components
Atkinson's Personality Components

  • Ability to balance two underlying motives

  • The need to achieve success

  • The need to avoid failure

Situational component
Situational Component

  • The probability of success along with

  • The incentive value of that success


Atkinson’s suggested relationship between success and the incentive value

Incentive value of success



Probability of sucess

Examples and formula
Examples and Formula

  • Average player v Professional = probability of success LOW

  • Incentive value of winning for the average is high = satisfaction

  • MS – Maf x PS x I – P

  • Motive to succeed Motive to avoid failure Probability of Success Incentive value of success

Outcome goal orientation
Outcome Goal Orientation

  • Motivated by winning and beating the opposition enjoy feelings from competing and comparing.

  • Ego boosted

  • High expectations for the future

Task goal orientation
Task Goal Orientation

  • Want to win

  • Not so interested in comparison to others

  • Developing own technical advances

  • Intrinsic motivation

  • Do fear failure

Stages of motivation
Stages of Motivation

  • Describe Veroffs sequential stages

  • 1. Autonomous competence

  • 2. Social comparison stage

  • 3 Integrated stage

  • List the factors which may influence achievement motivation

Attribution theory
Attribution Theory

  • Perception of causes to behaviour and outcomes

  • Complete activity 9 and 10 page 451 core text book

Internal Attributions



Task Difficulty

Stable attributions


Unstable attributions



Please complete activity 11 page 452 core text

Self serving bias
Self–Serving Bias

  • Take credit for success

  • Disassociation of failure

  • Blaming External factors

  • Success attributed to internal factors ------ & ---------?

  • Do performers attribute poor performance to external factors?