Tire tech 101
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Tire Tech 101. What is a tire made of. What percent of a tire is rubber? What is a pneumatic tire? What is the difference between radial & bias ply tires ? Why are tires black?. Raw Rubber Steel Nylon Polyester Rayon. Carbon Black Synthetic Rubber Fiberglass Aramid Brass.

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Tire Tech 101

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Tire Tech 101

  • What is a tire made of.

  • What percent of a tire is rubber?

  • What is a pneumatic tire?

  • What is the difference between radial & bias ply tires ?

  • Why are tires black?


Raw Rubber

Steel

Nylon

Polyester

Rayon

Carbon Black

Synthetic Rubber

Fiberglass

Aramid

Brass

Actual components that go into a tire.


What percent of a tire is rubber?

  • By weight, give or take 30%

  • By volume, quite a bite more.


What Is Pneumatic Tire?

  • Filled by air, especially compressed air: a pneumatic tire (dictionary definition).

  • All tires manufactured today are considered Pneumatic tires.


Who Invented The First Tire?

  • It was invented in 1888, by John Dunlop.

  • This would be the end of the solid tire.


Why are Tires Black?

  • To protect the rubber from the harmful UV rays.

  • A common type of UV stabilizer called a competitive absorber is added to capture and absorb these harmful UV light wave energy.


A bias ply tire has plies running at an angle from bead to bead.

The cord angle is also reversed from ply to ply.

Tread is bonded directly to the top ply.

Bias Ply Tire


Belted Bias Tire

  • Is a bias tire with belts added to increase tread stiffness.

  • These belts are also ran at a different angle.

  • These belts only lie on the tread area and not on the side walls, like cords.


Radial Ply Tire

  • Has plies running straight across from bead to bead with stabilizer belts lying directly beneath the tread.

  • This results in the radial having flexible side wall, but a stiff tread.


Tire Sidewall


Tire Sidewall


Tire Size


If you switch tire size on a car you can mess up the speedometer to figure out how close you are do the math to figure out the diameter.

For a 205/75R15 tire it would look like this

205 X .75 x 2 ÷ 25.4 + 15= 27.106

Tire size X Aspect ratio X 2 ÷ 25.4 + Rim size

100

Tire Size


Aspect Ratio

Percentage of tires height in relation to it’s width A 60 series tire height will be 60% of the width. The aspect ratio can be a 40,50, 60,65,70,75,78

These are some of the most common ones.


TIRE GRADING

TREAD WEAR, assigned a number, 150 will give you 50% more wear then one ranked 100

TRACTION - A, B, C (A Highest rating)

TEMPERATURE - A, B, C,


Effects of low tire pressure Overinflation


Effects of low tire pressure Underinflation


Effects of speed on a tire

Tires are tested under Laboratory conditions they are not worn out, are properly inflated, not over loaded, damaged or altered.

Just because they have a speed rating does not mean the car is safe to drive at those speeds


Speed Rating

Rating Maximum Speed

Q 99 mph

S 112 mph

T 118 mph

U 124 mph

H 130 mph

V 149 mph

W 168 mph

Y 186 mph

Z Above 149 mph

from goodyear


Separations

Bulges

sidewall separations

tread tearing, chunking

shoulder cracking

Sidewall cracking

Weather cracking

Breaks in sidewall/tread

Excessive radial runout

diameter

Excessive lateral runout

width

Conicity

not level accross tread

cone shaped

Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Tire Defects


Wheels

  • steel \ cast

  • Off set

  • Bump steer

  • Scrub Radius

    • note pages C 311- 313


Static balance

  • C 77

  • Equals wheel tramp


Dynamic balance

  • C- 78

  • equals wobble


Dynamic balance

  • C- 78

  • equals wobble


For more information go to


The End for this tire


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