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Modeling the Axon. Noah Weiss & Susan Koons. Neuron Anatomy. Ion Movement. Neuroscience: 3ed. Biological Significance of Myelination. Neuroscience: 3ed. Biological Significance of Myelination. Neuroscience: 3ed. Biological Significance of Myelination. Neuroscience: 3ed.

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Modeling the axon

Modeling the Axon

Noah Weiss & Susan Koons



Ion movement
Ion Movement

Neuroscience: 3ed


Biological significance of myelination
Biological Significance of Myelination

Neuroscience: 3ed


Biological significance of myelination1
Biological Significance of Myelination

Neuroscience: 3ed


Biological significance of myelination2
Biological Significance of Myelination

Neuroscience: 3ed


Circuit notation
Circuit Notation

  • Resistors: Linear or non-linear

    F(V,I)=0 V=IR

    I=f(V) V = h(I)

  • Capacitors:

  • Pumps:


Circuit laws
Circuit Laws

  • Kirchhoff’s Current Law:

    The principle of conservation of electric charge implies that:

    The sum of currents flowing towards a point is equal to the sum of currents flowing away from that point.

i2

i3

i1

i1 = i2 + i3


Circuit laws1
Circuit Laws

  • Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

    The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed circuit must be zero. (Conservation of Energy)

VR1 + VR2 + VR3 + VC =0

R2

R3

R1



Circuit model1
Circuit Model

  • Neurons can be modeled with a circuit model

    • Each circuit element has an IV characteristic

    • The IV characteristics lead to differential equation(s)

  • Use Kirchhoff’s laws and IV characteristics to get the differential equations


Equations circuit model
Equations- Circuit Model

  • Solve for and use

  • To find use the current law:

    • Additionally, define the absolute current

    • Assume a linear resistor with (small) resistance γ in series with the pumps

  • Use Kirchhoff’s laws to get:


Reducing dimensions
Reducing Dimensions

  • Assume the “N” curve doesn’t interact with the “S” curve

    • All three parts of “N” are within primary branch of “S”

    • Also, let ε = 0:

I

V

K

Na


Reducing dimensions1
Reducing Dimensions

  • Substitute the 4th equation into the 1st

  • Nullclines: Set the derivatives equal to zero

    • Nontrivial nullcline in the 2nd and 3rd equations are same

    • Re-arrange and obtain the following:


Resting potential
Resting Potential

  • Let

    • Analyze the nullclines: vector field directions

    • Assume C<<1: singular perturbation

    • nullcline intersects nullcline in primary branch

IA

IA nullcline

VC nullcline

Vc


Action potential conditions
Action Potential Conditions

  • Increase to shift the nullcline upward

  • To get an action potential:


Action potential conditions1
Action Potential Conditions

  • The “N” curve has 2 “knee” points at

  • The “S” curve is merely linear by assumption (i.e. is constant)

  • Some algebra shows that must satisfy:

>=



Multiple nodes
Multiple Nodes

Inside the cell

Outside the cell


Multiple nodes1
Multiple Nodes

  • Recall the equations for one node:

    • There is no outgoing current

  • Consider a second node that is not coupled to the first node

    • It should have the same equation (but with different currents)


Multiple nodes2
Multiple Nodes

  • Couple the nodes by adding a linear resistor between them

Current between the nodes


The general case n nodes
The General Case (N nodes)

  • This is the general equation for the nth node

  • In and out currents are derived in a similar manner:


Results
Results

C=.1 pF

Forcing current


Results1
Results

C=.1 pF


Results2
Results

C=.1 pF


Results3
Results

C=.1 pF


Results4
Results

C=.01 pF


Results5
Results

C=.01 pF


Results6
Results

C=.7 pF


Results7
Results

C=.7 pF



Transmission failure1
Transmission Failure

(ms)

(x10 pF)


The importance of myelination
The Importance of Myelination


The importance of myelination1
The Importance of Myelination


The importance of myelination2
The Importance of Myelination


The importance of myelination3
The Importance of Myelination

(x100 mV)

(ms)


The importance of myelination4
The Importance of Myelination

The Importance of Myelination- Myelinated Axon

(x100 mV)

(ms)


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Myelination matters! Myelination decreases capacitance and increases conductance velocity

  • If capacitance is too high, the pulse will not transmit

  • First model that shows a pulse that travels down the entire axon without dying out


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