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Chapter 8. Refrigerant Management. Objectives. After completing the material in this chapter, the student should be able to: List the desired properties for refrigerants. Explain the characteristics of hydrocarbons. Explain how a refrigerant becomes halogenated.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Refrigerant Management

  • After completing the material in this chapter, the student should be able to:
    • List the desired properties for refrigerants.
    • Explain the characteristics of hydrocarbons.
    • Explain how a refrigerant becomes halogenated.
    • Explain the chemical elements that make up CFC, HC, HCFC, and HFC refrigerants.
    • Differentiate between azeotropic, near-azeotropic, and zeotropic refrigerant blends.
    • Explain how ozone protects the Earth.
    • Explain the difference between good and bad ozone.
  • After completing the material in this chapter, the student should be able to:
    • Explain how ozone is destroyed.
    • Explain the concept of global warming.
    • Interpret ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and global warming potentials (GWP).
    • Determine the proper oil to use with various types of refrigerant.
    • Differentiate between reusable and disposable refrigerant cylinders.
    • Obey laws regarding certification and refrigerant handling.
  • After completing the material in this chapter, the student should be able to:
    • Differentiate between Type I, Type II, Type III, and Universal certification.
    • Differentiate between refrigerant recovering, recycling, and reclaiming.
    • Demonstrate passive and active recovery methods.
    • Demonstrate methods to recycle refrigerant.
refrigerant types
Refrigerant Types
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Non-toxic
  • Non-flammable
  • Chemically stable
  • Recyclable
  • Relative low cost
  • Detectable at low concentrations
ethane and methane
Ethane and Methane
  • Most refrigerants in use today originate from one of these two base molecules.
  • Methane and ethane are referred to as pure hydrocarbons.
    • Pure hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and carbon.
    • Other hydrocarbons include propane and butane.
ethane and methane1
Ethane and Methane
  • (A) Methane molecule (B) Ethane molecule
classes of refrigerants in use today
Classes of Refrigerants in Use Today
  • Hydrocarbons (HC)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
  • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC)
ozone depletion
Ozone Depletion
  • Skin cancer.
  • Eye-related issues, including cataracts.
  • Decreased plant growth rates.
  • Compromised immune systems.
global warming
Global Warming
  • Also referred to as the greenhouse effect.
  • Earth’s inability to release heat by radiation back to the atmosphere.
ozone depletion potential odp
Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
  • CFC refrigerants have high ozone depletion potentials.
  • HCFC refrigerants have lower ozone depletion potentials.
  • HFC and HC refrigerants have an ozone depletion potential of zero.
global warming potential gwp
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • CFC refrigerants have high global warming potentials.
  • HCFC refrigerants have lower global warming potentials.
  • HC refrigerants have low global warming potentials.
  • HFC refrigerants have very low global warming potentials.
refrigerant oils
Refrigerant Oils
  • Alkylbenzenes
  • Glycols
  • Esters
refrigerant cylinders
Refrigerant Cylinders
  • Disposable refrigerant cylinders
  • Reusable refrigerant cylinders
  • Recovery cylinders
refrigerant cylinders1
Refrigerant Cylinders
  • Disposable refrigerant cylinder (Photo by Eugene Silberstein).
refrigerant cylinders2
Refrigerant Cylinders
  • Reusable refrigerant cylinders.
refrigerant handling
Refrigerant Handling
  • Always be thoroughly familiar with surroundings.
  • Wear personal protection equipment (PPE) including safety glasses, gloves, and protective clothing.
  • Recovered refrigerant may be acidic. BE CAREFUL.
  • Do not inhale refrigerant vapors.
refrigerant handling1
Refrigerant Handling
  • When possible, work in well-ventilated areas.
  • Refrigerant containers should never be filled to more than 80% capacity.
  • Always secure cylinders before transporting.
  • Properly label all refrigerant cylinders.
refrigerant handling2
Refrigerant Handling
  • Store tanks in a cool, dry place.
  • Always maintain equipment and tools including recovery equipment, gauges, hoses, and refrigerant cylinders.
  • Dedicate hoses for use with specific refrigerants to reduce cross-contamination.
  • Change oil and filters regularly on recovery equipment.
epa type 608 certification
EPA Type 608 Certification
  • Type I – Small Appliances
  • Type II – High-Pressure and Very-High- Pressure Appliances
  • Type III – Low-Pressure Appliances
  • Universal – Type I, Type II, and Type III
refrigerant recovery
Refrigerant Recovery
  • Passive recovery:
    • Uses the system compressor to pump the refrigerant from the system to an approved DOT refrigerant cylinder
  • Active recovery:
    • When the system contains more than 15 pounds of refrigerant or if the system compressor is inoperative
refrigerant recovery1
Refrigerant Recovery
  • Setup for passive refrigerant activity.
  • Refrigerants should be environmentally safe, non-toxic, non-flammable, and chemically stable.
  • Halogen refrigerants are created when some hydrogen atoms are replaced with chlorine or fluorine atoms.
  • Hydrocarbons (HC) contain only hydrogen and carbon.
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) contain only hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) contain only chlorine, fluorine, and carbon.
  • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) contain only hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon.
  • Blended refrigerants are mixtures of two or more other refrigerants and can be azeotropic, near-azeotropic, or zeotropic.
  • Stratospheric ozone protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation.
  • Ozone molecules are destroyed by chlorine.
  • Chemical substances are rated by their ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and their global warming potentials (GWP).
  • CFCs have high ODPs, while HFCs and HCs have low ODPs.
  • Synthetic oils can be alkylbenzenes, glycols, and esters.
  • Refrigerant cylinders are color-coded and can be reusable or disposable.
  • The Montreal Protocol Act paved the way for a number of regulations regarding refrigerant handling.
  • Technicians must be certified as per EPA Section 608 guidelines.
  • Refrigerant can be recovered, recycled, or reclaimed.
  • Recovery involves the removal and storage of the refrigerant.
  • Recycling involves the filtering of refrigerant prior to reintroducing it to the system.
  • Reclaiming involves restoring the refrigerant to ARI 700 standards.