The urinary system
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The Urinary System. Function of Urinary System. Filters blood of waste products THEN Expels the waste from the body in the form of urine. 1. The kidneys. Regulate the levels of water, sodium, potassium (sodium and potassium are examples of electrolytes)

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Function of urinary system
Function of Urinary System

  • Filters blood of waste products

    THEN

  • Expels the waste from the body in the form of urine


1 the kidneys
1. The kidneys

  • Regulate the levels of water, sodium, potassium (sodium and potassium are examples of electrolytes)

  • Remove urea from blood


Anatomy of the kidney
Anatomy of the Kidney

  • Renal cortex – outer layer

  • Medulla – middle layer

  • Pelvis - inner section which is the central collecting area located at wide end of ureter


Nephron
Nephron

  • Is the filtering unit of the kidney – blood is filtered here

  • Contains glomeruli which contain capillaries (i.e. minute blood vessels) that take blood to & from nephron

  • Forms urine


Ureters
Ureters

  • Carry urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder

  • Ureters are muscular tubes lined with mucous membrane


Bladder
Bladder

  • Is a hollow muscular sac that holds the urine

  • Is also referred to as a vesicle

  • When urine is expelled it is called micturition, voiding or urination


Urethra
Urethra

  • Single canal that carries urine from the bladder to the outside if the body

  • Urinary meatus is the term given to the external opening of the urethra

  • Urine is made up of 95% water & 5% waste products




Disorders of the urinary system
Disorders of the Urinary System

  • 2 major types

  • Filtration of blood in kidney is disturbed

  • Flow of urine is blocked


Renal failure
Renal Failure

  • Disturbance to filtration of blood leads to the blood becoming toxic

  • Dialysis is the process by which artificial filtration of the blood is carried out

  • Renal failure is caused by damage to the kidneys e,g, infections, trauma, cancer, certain drugs


Blockages
Blockages

  • Can occur in ureters, bladder, or urethra

  • Can be caused by inflammation from infections, tumours, stones known as renal calculi

  • Blockage can cause a build up of urine which can then lead to kidney damage






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