The presidency
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The Presidency. Qualifications for Presidential Office. President must be: Natural Born Citizen 35 years old 14 years a U.S. Resident Terms of Office (22 nd Amendment) 1951 4 year terms, max 2 terms If VP becomes President due to death of President, 10 years max

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The Presidency

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The presidency

The Presidency


Qualifications for presidential office

Qualifications for Presidential Office

President must be:

Natural Born Citizen

35 years old

14 years a U.S. Resident

Terms of Office (22nd Amendment) 1951

4 year terms, max 2 terms

If VP becomes President due to death of President, 10 years max

If VP serves as President more than 2 years only gets one more term

If VP serves as acting President less than 2 years, gets 2 more terms


Presidential impeachment

Presidential Impeachment

Congress has the authority to impeach and remove a president from office

House of Reps vote by simple majority (218) to authorize an investigation

House Judiciary Committee decides through hearings if the president should be tried for stated offenses and submits finding to full house

Full House votes by simple majority to indict the president on one or more charges (Impeach President)

President cannot resign after he has been impeach


Presidential removal

Presidential Removal

Senate

Holds a trial on the charges

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court would preside over the trial

2/3 majority would convict, causing the president’s removal

Nixon (Resigned before House voted on Impeachment charges)

A. Johnson/Clinton were impeached in the House but both fell short of 2/3 vote in Senate for removal.


Role of president

Role of President

  • Chief Executive

    • Enforces federal laws and federal court decisions

  • Commander in Chief

  • Head of State

  • Chief Diplomat

    • Receive ambassadors and other representatives from foreign countries

    • Recognize the existence of another country’s government

  • Chief legislature

    • Can Veto legislation

  • Political Party Leader

    • Choose VP


Constitutional power

Constitutional Power

Article II of the Constitution

Refer to page 277

Commander in Chief of Armed Forces

To appoint, with the Senate’s consent/approval

Who can the President appoint?

Grant Pardons and Clemencies

Except in cases of impeachment

To make Treaties, advice & consent of Senate by 2/3 vote

Executive Agreements (international agreement does not require senate approval)


Constitutional powers

Constitutional Powers

  • Refer to page 277

  • To make Treaties, advice & consent of Senate by 2/3 vote

    • Executive Agreements (international agreement does not require senate approval)

  • Fill vacancies when Congress in recess

    • Expire when new Congress meets

  • Convene Congress in Extraordinary occasions

    • Annual State of the Union Address


Constitutional powers1

Constitutional Powers

Chief Diplomat

Receive ambassadors and other representatives from foreign countries

Recognize the existence of another country’s government

Ensure that laws passed by Congress “be faithfully executed”


President s veto power

President’s Veto Power

Veto- refuse to sign-kills bill sent back to Congress with reasons for veto

Congress can override the veto with 2/3 vote of both Houses- bill becomes Law

Difficult for Congress to Override

If president does not sign or veto within 10 days except Sundays, and Congress in session Bill becomes law

Pocket Veto

If Congress not in session bill dies if president takes no action (does not respond)

Line-Item Veto-1998 Supreme Court declared Unconstitutional


Presidential succession

Presidential Succession

Page 292

Presidential Succession Act of 1947

Set up of who should take over should the President not be able to perform duties due to disability, death, resignation

Vice President

Speaker of House

President Pro Tempore of the Senate

Presidential Cabinet secretaries in order of creation: Secretary of State, Treasury, Defense,..


Vice president

Vice President

25th Amendment, 1967 (Page 293)

VP shall become President if Present is removed, dies, or resigns

Allows the President to appoint a new VP if becomes vacant

Requires simple majority in both houses for approval

If president unable to perform duties, he must inform Congress in writing, VP serves as acting president until president can resume duties

When the president is unable to communicate, majority of the cabinet and VP can declare that to Congress, VP is acting president until president resumes duties.

2/3 vote of congress is required to decide whether the VP shall remain acting president or whether president shall resume duties.


Military powers

Military Powers

Commander in Chief of Military of U.S.

Congressional Check on President

Congress has power to declare war

War Powers Resolution of 1973

Limits presidential authority to introduce troops into hostile foreign land without congressional approval

President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deployment of troops outside the U.S.

Hostilities must end in 60 days unless congress extends troops to 30 more days for president to withdrawal troops from hostile territories or ask congress to declare war.


Organization of executive branch

Organization of Executive Branch

  • President’s Cabinet

  • Executive Office of the President

  • White House Office

  • Chief of Staff

  • Press Secretary

  • National Security Council (NSC)

  • First Lady


Factors in presidential leadership

Factors in Presidential Leadership

The Stage of the President’s Term

Honeymoon Period

Rally around the President (War or Crisis)

President focus internationally if not doing well domestically


Factors in presidential leadership1

Factors in Presidential Leadership

  • Relations with Congress

    • Seeking cooperation with Congress

    • Benefiting from Partisan Support in Congress

    • Colliding with Congress

      • Divided Government

  • Public Support

    • Presidential Approval Ratings (public Opinion)

    • The Televised Presidency

    • “Going Public”

    • Lame Duck


Electoral college

Electoral College

Indirect system for choosing president

Electoral College

The Group of electors who are chosen in each state to officially elect the President and VP

US Constitution

Article II, Section 1

Electors for each state

Electoral votes for each state based on the number of senators (always 2) plus the number of its U.S. Representatives in the House

(at least 1) determined by census every 10 years

Electors cannot be (senators or House of Representatives) members of Congress

www.270towin.com


Size of electoral college

Size of Electoral College

Total number of electoral votes set at 538

100 Senators

435 House of Representatives

3 District of Columbia (Washington DC)

23rd Amendment (1961)

D.C. receives the minimum electoral votes a state could have.


Electoral college amendment

Electoral College Amendment

Twelfth Amendment (1804)

Electors must cast one vote for President and one vote for Vice-President, instead of two votes for President.

President and Vice-President must be from 2 different states.

Prevents electors from voting only for “favorite sons” of their own state.


Why vote if presidency is not won by popular vote

Why vote if Presidency is not won by popular vote?

Think of the Electoral College as 51 separate elections.

One election for each state and Washington D.C.

Voters in each state help their state’s electors choose which candidate gets the electoral votes from that state


Winner take all system

Winner Take All System

In 48 states and Washington D.C., Which ever candidates gets the most popular votes wins the electoral votes from that state.

Example CA (55 Electoral Votes as of 2010)

If 50.1% CA voters in November 2008 vote democrat, then 55 CA democratic slate of electors each will have one vote to give to democratic candidate running for President in December 2008.


Split allocation of electoral votes

Split Allocation of Electoral Votes

Maine and Nebraska

Split their electoral votes based on both statewide popular vote and each district’s popular vote.

Example Maine has 4 electoral votes

2 votes are determined based on statewide election

Candidate that wins the statewide election will get 2 votes

2 remaining votes are determined by congressional districts votes

Winner of each Congressional district in those states receiving one electoral vote.


Swing states

Swing States

Swing States (Purple States)

States that do not consistently vote democrat or republican every 4 years

As we saw in the 2000 presidential election, Florida, the largest swing state, determined the outcome of the election.


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