8 5 acid base reactions
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8.5 Acid-Base Reactions. SCH3U Solutions and Solubility. Reactions Involving Acids. Acids take part in several characteristic reactions: Active metals react with acids in a single displacement reaction a ctive metal + acid  hydrogen + ionic compound

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8.5 Acid-Base Reactions

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8 5 acid base reactions

8.5 Acid-Base Reactions

SCH3U

Solutions and Solubility


Reactions involving acids

Reactions Involving Acids

  • Acids take part in several characteristic reactions:

  • Active metals react with acids in a single displacement reaction

    • active metal + acid  hydrogen + ionic compound

    • Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)


Reactions involving acids1

Reactions Involving Acids

  • All acids react with carbonates in a double displacement reaction

    • carbonate + acid  carbon dioxide + water + ionic compound

    • Na2CO3(s)+ 2HNO3(aq)CO2(g)+ H2O(l) + 2NaNO3(aq)


Reactions involving acids2

Reactions Involving Acids

  • Acids undergo precipitation reactions with some ionic compounds

    • ionic compound + acid  precipitate + acid

    • Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2HI(aq)PbI2(s) + 2HNO3(aq)


Reactions involving acids3

Reactions Involving Acids

  • Acids react with bases in another double displacement reaction often called a neutralization reaction

    • base + acid  ionic compound + water

    • NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)


8 5 acid base titration

8.5 Acid-Base Titration

SCH3U

Solutions and Solubility


Acid base titration

Acid-Base Titration

  • Titration

    • a laboratory procedure involving the carefully measured and controlled adding of a solution from a buret into a measured volume of a sample solution

    • it is used to determine the concentration of substances in solution

  • Titrant

    • the solution in the buret during a titration (standard solution with KNOWN concentration)


Titration apparatus

Titration Apparatus


Titration of an acid with a base

Titration of an Acid with a Base

In the buret standard solution of base (KNOWN concentration)

In the flask  precise volume of acid (UNKNOWN concentration)

In the flask  indicator to detect the end point


Titration of a base with an acid

Titration of a Base with an Acid

In the buret standard solution of acid (KNOWN concentration)

In the flask  precise volume of base (UNKNOWN concentration)

In the flask  indicator to detect the end point


The endpoint

The Endpoint

PHTH titration

  • Endpoint

    • the point in a titration at which the indicator changes colour

    • this is at, or close to, the point at which the titrant and sample in the flask have completely reacted


The endpoint1

The Endpoint


Steps of a titration

Steps of a Titration

Place standard solution in buret

Place a precise volume of a solution of unknown concentration in a flask

Add an indicator to the flask

Record the volume in the buret as your initial reading

Open the stopcock of the buret and allow the standard solution to enter the flask, while swirling the flask

Slow down the flow of standard solution being added to ensure you don’t surpass the endpoint by too much

Once the end point is reached, record the final volume in the buret

Subtract the initial volume from the final volume in the buret to obtain the total volume of standard solution used to neutralize the unknown solution.


A titration sample problem

A Titration Sample Problem

25.0 mL of an acid rain sample containing sulfurous acid was analyzed in a laboratory using a titration with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide (0.105 mol/L). Use the evidence given in the following table to determine the concentration of the sulfurous acid.


Homework

HOMEWORK

Read Section 8.5 (pg. 393 – 397)

Answer “Practice” #6 – 11 on pg. 399 – 400


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