Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce
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Strana et Illicita - Senatorial Decree, 35 CE. History, Christianity and the Transformation of the Classical World 100 BCE – 100 CE. A . Century of Turmoil. Social Wars 91 BCE optimates v. populares Spartacan Revolt 73 BCE

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Strana et Illicita - Senatorial Decree, 35 CE

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Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

Strana et Illicita- Senatorial Decree, 35 CE

History, Christianity and the Transformation of the Classical World

100 BCE – 100 CE


A century of turmoil

A. Century of Turmoil

Social Wars 91 BCEoptimates v. populares

Spartacan Revolt 73 BCE

New Men in power 59 BCE- 1st Triumvirate Crassus, Pompey, Caesar


B crossing the rubicon

B. Crossing the Rubicon

  • Julius Caesar d. 44 BCE- Gallic conquests

  • & Cleopatra- Ptolemies


C the end of the republic

C. The end of the Republic

1. Second Triumvirate 42 BCE

- Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus

- Battle of Actium 31 BCE


Age of the emperors

Age of the Emperors

Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus

“Invisible Monarchy”

Senate remains, but republic is lost


D the roman soul in crisis

D. The Roman Soul in Crisis

  • Mystery Cults- secret rituals- required initiation- ecstatic response / presence of god- eternal life

  • Monotheism? Gaia – “Mother Earth”

    Cicero106-43 BCEStoicism – duty to one’s role divine providence


Ii early christianity the classical world

II. Early Christianity & the Classical World


A traditions in conflict

A. Traditions in conflict

Judah the Maccabee Hasmoneans 165-63 BCE- Hebrews v. Hellenism- cosmopolitan v. traditionalist Seleucid Kingdom


B hebrew resistance to rome

B. Hebrew Resistance to Rome

  • Pompey & the Pirates

  • Judea 63 BCE

    Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

3. Division- Sadduceesqualified interactionwritten law- Hasidim cultural purity

Pharisees prophetic visionslife after deathHillel the Elder“Golden Rule”

Zealots (6 CE)


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

4. Grassroots fervor

- John the Baptist

“generation of vipers!”

Critic of Hebrew leaders


C joshua ben joseph ca 6 30 ce

C. Joshua ben Joseph ca. 6-30 CE

  • Populist- Jewish tradition- miracle worker

    Messiah (?)


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Progressive

    - Sermon on the Mount [Matthew]

    - appeal to/for the powerless, despised

    “spirit of the law”


Iii from cult to institution

III. From Cult to Institution


A the cult of christ

A. The Cult of Christ

  • Maintained cult as Jewish sect

    - circumcision; Torah

    - conversion to Judaism

    - baptism; eucharist

    James


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Messiah?- Again with the Gentiles

    - stumbling block: the crucifixion

  • We’re not with them- Roman / Hebrew War, 66-73 CE- Gospels: blame the Jews

    Masada


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Pagans for Jesus- mythologyOsiris, Tammuz, Dionysus, Horus

    - women & slaves

    - the End is near (look busy)

    5. Appeal and threat

    - Decius r. 249-251


B paul of tarsus 5 67 ce

B. Paul of Tarsus 5-67 CE

  • Paul’s vision

    - completion of Jewish history

    - scripturally based: “Old” (Hellenized Jews)

    “New” Testament

    Gospels (second-hand)Epistles (letters of instruction)Acts (Church history)Revelation (crisis literature)


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Break from Hebrew tradition

    - salvation was gift (grace)

    - salvation open to non-Jews

    - salvation dependent on faith, membership, & ritual

    MYSTERY CULT


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Hierarchy

    - patriarchates

    - bishops; presbyters; deacons/deaconesses

    - ecclesiae

    Roman model

    Limited role of women (1 Corinthians)- subordinate to Church- subordinate to husbands


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Roll call of the damned – 1 Corinthians

    - creation of the “other”- paganism; fornicators (homosexuality ?)

    - Roman decline

    - echo of Augustus

    emphasized Greco-Roman concept of jurisprudence

    - spirit and letter of the law


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

  • Salvation always in peril – the Devil

    - ZoroastrianismAhura Mazda – singular; all goodevil exists independently

    - demons n’stuff

    - problems of perfection


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

Paul organized early Christianity and made it appealing to a wide array of people...

…but it was Roman oppression that gave Christians an added sense of identity through shared hardship


Iv rome in the augustan age

IV. Rome in the Augustan Age


Why an emperor

Why an Emperor?

  • [Rhetorical] defense of Republican virtues

  • Reform / civic peace

  • The Pax Romana31 BCE - 192 CE


A invisible monarchy

A. Invisible monarchy

  • What’s in a name?

    - Consul, Augustus 27 BCE, Governor

    - Imperium Maius, imperator

    - princeps civitatus

  • Reform the Senate

    3. Build Equestrian class


B army reform

B. Army reform

  • Addition by subtraction

    - 60 to 28 legions

    - dispersal

    - Praetorian Guard


Strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce

2. The Legionnaires

- standing army / navy

- long tours

- chance for promotion

- veterans benefits

  • The Auxiliaries

    - chance for citizenship

    Army was a crucial instrument in spreading influence


C make the world rome

C. Make the world “Rome”

Little Romes

- fusion of cultures

- loyal patricians

- bureaucracy


D moral regeneration

D. Moral Regeneration

  • The “family values” Emperor

    - tax breaks for kids

    - stiff penalties for adultery, the unmarried “virtue”

    2. Pontifexmaximus

    - “Cult of the Genius of the Emperor”

    What links the Empire together?


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