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Computer: Definition and History (Contd.). Lin Zhong ELEC101, Rice University. Electromechanical state. A combination of electrical and mechanical states Electromagnetic relay to change mechanical state Replay is a ON/OFF switch . Tabulating machine.

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Computer: Definition and History (Contd.)

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Computer definition and history contd

Computer: Definition and History (Contd.)

Lin Zhong

ELEC101, Rice University


Electromechanical state

Electromechanical state

  • A combination of electrical and mechanical states

  • Electromagnetic relay to change mechanical state

    • Replay is a ON/OFF switch


Tabulating machine

Tabulating machine

  • Invented by Herman Hollerith for 1890 U.S. Census because 1880 census took 7 years to tabulate (manually)

    • The origin of IBM

    • Simple calculation (aggregation)


Turing bombe

Turing Bombe

  • Used to break Enigma during WW2

Rotor: 26 mechanical states corresponding to 26 letters

Electrical current flows through a series of rotors if their letter combination makes sense


Era of electrical states

Era of electrical states

ENIAC and vacuum tubes


Vacuum tube

Vacuum tube


State of vacuum tubes

State of vacuum tubes

Diode

Triode (transistor)


Problems with vacuum tube states

Problems with vacuum tube states

  • Size

  • Power consumption

  • Speed


Era of charge states

Era of charge states

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1956


Transistors at nanoscale

Transistors at nanoscale

Sunlin Chou, “Extending Moore’s Law in the Nanotechnology Era” (www.intel.com).


Size matters

Size matters

Intel 4004

1971

Smallest mass produced transistor 32nm


Moore s law

Moore’s Law


Computer definition and history contd

Computing: 60 years ago

Wiring ENIAC with a new program


Computer definition and history contd

Computing: Today

Living among computers

“Computers” over $50 that serve me


A difference of 60 years

A difference of 60 years

  • ENIAC (1946)

    • $6 million in 2008 $

    • 17,468 vacuum tubes

    • 680 square feet

    • 27 tons

    • 15 KW power

    • Longest continuous period of operation: 116 hours

    • 5000 operations per second

  • Intel Core i7

    • ~$300

    • >730 million transistors

    • 263 mm²

    • A few ounces

    • <100W power

    • Runs forever

    • 76,383 MIPS (Million Instruction Per Second)


A difference of 10 years

A difference of 10 years

  • Intel Pentium MMX 233MHz

  • 64MB RAM/4GB Disk

  • Ethernet

  • 14 pounds

  • Samsung S5L8900 412MHz

  • 128MB RAM/8-16GB Flash

  • WiFi, Bluetooth 2.0, 3G

  • 4.7 oz

Apple iPhone (2008)

IBM Thinkpad 770 (1998)


How about the next 10 years

How about the next 10 years?


Other states

Other states

  • Resistance

    • Negative differential resistance (NDR)

      • Molecules (Reed & Tour, 1999)

      • Resonant tunneling diodes (RTD)

  • Presence/Absence of electrons

    • Quantum dots (nanoscale trap)

  • Spin of electrons

    • Spintronics


Molecular conformation state

Molecular conformation state

Collier et al, 2000


More videos about computer history

More videos about computer history

http://www.youtube.com/user/ComputerHistory


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