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Computer: Definition and History (Contd.). Lin Zhong ELEC101, Rice University. Electromechanical state. A combination of electrical and mechanical states Electromagnetic relay to change mechanical state Replay is a ON/OFF switch . Tabulating machine.

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Computer definition and history contd

Computer: Definition and History (Contd.)

Lin Zhong

ELEC101, Rice University


Electromechanical state
Electromechanical state

  • A combination of electrical and mechanical states

  • Electromagnetic relay to change mechanical state

    • Replay is a ON/OFF switch


Tabulating machine
Tabulating machine

  • Invented by Herman Hollerith for 1890 U.S. Census because 1880 census took 7 years to tabulate (manually)

    • The origin of IBM

    • Simple calculation (aggregation)


Turing bombe
Turing Bombe

  • Used to break Enigma during WW2

Rotor: 26 mechanical states corresponding to 26 letters

Electrical current flows through a series of rotors if their letter combination makes sense


Era of electrical states
Era of electrical states

ENIAC and vacuum tubes



State of vacuum tubes
State of vacuum tubes

Diode

Triode (transistor)


Problems with vacuum tube states
Problems with vacuum tube states

  • Size

  • Power consumption

  • Speed


Era of charge states
Era of charge states

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1956


Transistors at nanoscale
Transistors at nanoscale

Sunlin Chou, “Extending Moore’s Law in the Nanotechnology Era” (www.intel.com).


Size matters
Size matters

Intel 4004

1971

Smallest mass produced transistor 32nm



Computing: 60 years ago

Wiring ENIAC with a new program


Computing: Today

Living among computers

“Computers” over $50 that serve me


A difference of 60 years
A difference of 60 years

  • ENIAC (1946)

    • $6 million in 2008 $

    • 17,468 vacuum tubes

    • 680 square feet

    • 27 tons

    • 15 KW power

    • Longest continuous period of operation: 116 hours

    • 5000 operations per second

  • Intel Core i7

    • ~$300

    • >730 million transistors

    • 263 mm²

    • A few ounces

    • <100W power

    • Runs forever

    • 76,383 MIPS (Million Instruction Per Second)


A difference of 10 years
A difference of 10 years

  • Intel Pentium MMX 233MHz

  • 64MB RAM/4GB Disk

  • Ethernet

  • 14 pounds

  • Samsung S5L8900 412MHz

  • 128MB RAM/8-16GB Flash

  • WiFi, Bluetooth 2.0, 3G

  • 4.7 oz

Apple iPhone (2008)

IBM Thinkpad 770 (1998)



Other states
Other states

  • Resistance

    • Negative differential resistance (NDR)

      • Molecules (Reed & Tour, 1999)

      • Resonant tunneling diodes (RTD)

  • Presence/Absence of electrons

    • Quantum dots (nanoscale trap)

  • Spin of electrons

    • Spintronics


Molecular conformation state
Molecular conformation state

Collier et al, 2000


More videos about computer history
More videos about computer history

http://www.youtube.com/user/ComputerHistory


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