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Computer: Definition and History (Contd.)PowerPoint Presentation

Computer: Definition and History (Contd.)

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Electromechanical state

- A combination of electrical and mechanical states
- Electromagnetic relay to change mechanical state
- Replay is a ON/OFF switch

Tabulating machine

- Invented by Herman Hollerith for 1890 U.S. Census because 1880 census took 7 years to tabulate (manually)
- The origin of IBM
- Simple calculation (aggregation)

Turing Bombe

- Used to break Enigma during WW2

Rotor: 26 mechanical states corresponding to 26 letters

Electrical current flows through a series of rotors if their letter combination makes sense

Era of electrical states

ENIAC and vacuum tubes

Problems with vacuum tube states

- Size
- Power consumption
- Speed

Era of charge states

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1956

Transistors at nanoscale

Sunlin Chou, “Extending Moore’s Law in the Nanotechnology Era” (www.intel.com).

Wiring ENIAC with a new program

A difference of 60 years

- ENIAC (1946)
- $6 million in 2008 $
- 17,468 vacuum tubes
- 680 square feet
- 27 tons
- 15 KW power
- Longest continuous period of operation: 116 hours
- 5000 operations per second

- Intel Core i7
- ~$300
- >730 million transistors
- 263 mm²
- A few ounces
- <100W power
- Runs forever
- 76,383 MIPS (Million Instruction Per Second)

A difference of 10 years

- Intel Pentium MMX 233MHz
- 64MB RAM/4GB Disk
- Ethernet
- 14 pounds

- Samsung S5L8900 412MHz
- 128MB RAM/8-16GB Flash
- WiFi, Bluetooth 2.0, 3G
- 4.7 oz

Apple iPhone (2008)

IBM Thinkpad 770 (1998)

Other states

- Resistance
- Negative differential resistance (NDR)
- Molecules (Reed & Tour, 1999)
- Resonant tunneling diodes (RTD)

- Negative differential resistance (NDR)
- Presence/Absence of electrons
- Quantum dots (nanoscale trap)

- Spin of electrons
- Spintronics

Molecular conformation state

Collier et al, 2000

More videos about computer history

http://www.youtube.com/user/ComputerHistory

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