Chapter 4
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CHAPTER 4. Whole Body Terms. Structural Organization. Cells Smallest, most numerous structural unit Tissues Groups of similar cells with specialized functions. Structural Organization. Organs Tissues arranged together to perform a particular function Body systems

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CHAPTER 4

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Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4

Whole Body Terms


Structural organization

Structural Organization

  • Cells

    • Smallest, most numerous structural unit

  • Tissues

    • Groups of similar cells with specialized functions


Structural organization1

Structural Organization

  • Organs

    • Tissues arranged together to perform a particular function

  • Body systems

    • Organization of different organs to perform bodily functions


Terms relating to cells

Terms Relating to Cells

  • Anaplasia

  • Aplasia

  • Dysplasia

  • Hyperplasia

  • Hypoplasia

  • Neoplasia


Types of tissues

Types of Tissues

  • Connective

  • Epithelial

  • Muscle

    • Skeletal

    • Smooth or Visceral

    • Cardiac

  • Nervous


Question

Question

The _______ are the smallest structural units, leading up to ______________, which perform important bodily functions.

  • tissues, organs

  • body systems, cells

  • cells, body systems

  • cells, organs


Question1

Question

Of the 4 types of tissue, how many do you think are involved in a body system such as the digestive system?

  • 4

  • 3

  • 2

  • None


Body planes

Body Planes

  • Midsagittal

    • Divides body into equal right and left portions

    • Midline of the body

    • Medial

    • Lateral


Body planes1

Body Planes


Body planes2

Body Planes

  • Frontal or coronal

    • Divides body into front and back portions


Body planes3

Body Planes


Body planes4

Body Planes

  • Transverse

    • Cuts across body

    • Superior (cranial, cephalic)

    • Inferior (caudal)


Body planes5

Body Planes


Question2

Question

True or False: A frontal view is when you divide the body into equal left and right portions.


Question3

Question

True or False: A radiologist dictates a craniocaudal view was performed. This means the film was shot from the top of the head downward toward the tail.


Body regions

Body Regions

  • Nine abdominal regions

    • Identified from left to right

    • Move from top to bottom

    • One row at a time


Body regions1

Body Regions


Abdominal quadrants

Abdominal Quadrants

  • Landmark = umbilicus (navel)

  • Quadrants

    • RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ

    • McBurney’s point

    • Munro’s point


Abdominal quadrants1

Abdominal Quadrants


Question4

Question

Looking at the diagram of the 9 body regions, what number would be the right lumbar region?

  • 3

  • 6

  • 8

  • 7


Question5

Question

True or False: McBurney’s point is the landmark for the 4 abdominal quadrants.


Body cavities

Body Cavities

  • Ventral cavity

    • Thoracic

    • Abdominal

    • Pelvic

  • Dorsal cavity

    • Cranial

    • Spinal


Body cavities1

Body Cavities


Question6

Question

True or False: Basically, anything in front of the spine is considered a ventral cavity.


Question7

Question

The ___________ cavity is separated by the diaphragm from the ___________ cavity.

  • pelvic, abdominal

  • abdominal, thoracic

  • thoracic, pelvic

  • thoracic, abdominopelvic


Divisions of the back

Divisions of the Back

  • Cervical vertebrae (C1 – C7)

  • Thoracic vertebrae (T1 – T12)

  • Lumbar vertebrae (L1 – L5)

  • Sacrum

  • Coccyx


Divisions of the back1

Divisions of the Back


Question8

Question

When describing a vertebral body’s location, you will use the _________ letter of each division.

  • second

  • last

  • first

  • next to last


Question9

Question

True or False: As long as you know where the divisions are in the spine, you can count from either the top or the bottom to correctly identify each vertebra.


Directional terms

Directional Terms

  • Superficialvs.Deep

  • Anteriorvs.Posterior

  • Ventralvs.Dorsal

  • Superiorvs.Inferior

  • Cranialvs.Caudal


Directional terms1

Directional Terms


Directional terms2

Directional Terms

  • Medialvs. Lateral

  • Distalvs. Proximal

  • Supinevs. Prone

  • Supinationvs. Pronation

  • Plantarvs. Dorsal


Directional terms3

Directional Terms


Question10

Question

Common nouns can help in keeping directional terms straight. For instance, something in close proximity is __________ and something that is in the distance is __________.

  • medial, lateral

  • distal, proximal

  • superior, inferior

  • proximal, distal


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