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14. GOVERNMENT, THE ECONOMY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Chapter Outline. Economic Systems Power and Authority Political Behavior in the United States Models of Power Structure in the United States The Changing Economy The Environment Social Policy : Affirmative Action. Economic Systems.

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Government the economy and the environment

14

GOVERNMENT, THE ECONOMY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT


Chapter outline

Chapter Outline

  • Economic Systems

  • Power and Authority

  • Political Behavior in the United States

  • Models of Power Structure in the United States

  • The Changing Economy

  • The Environment

  • Social Policy: Affirmative Action


Economic systems

Economic Systems

  • Capitalism

  • Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.

  • Laissez-faire – people could compete freely with minimal government intervention.

  • Modern capitalism tolerates monopolistic practices.


Economic systems1

Economic Systems

  • Socialism

  • The theory of socialism was refined by Marx and Engles.

  • Socialism attempts to eliminate economic exploitation.

  • Under socialism, the means of production and distribution are collectively rather than privately owned.

  • The objective of socialism is to meet people’s needs rather than maximize profits.


Power and authority

Power and Authority

  • Power

  • Weber argued that power is the ability to exercise one’s will over others.

  • Sources of power in political systems include:

    force

    influence

    authority


Power and authority1

Power and Authority

  • Types of Authority

  • Authority is power that has been institutionalized and is recognized by the people over whom it is recognized.


Power and authority2

Power and Authority

  • Types of Authority

Traditional Authority: In traditional authority, legitimate power is conferred by custom and accepted practice.

Legal-Rational Authority: In legal-rational authority, power is made legitimate by law.

Charismatic Authority: In charismatic authority, power is made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers.


Political behavior in the united states

Political Behavior in the United States

  • Political Socialization

  • Political socialization is the process by which one acquires political attitudes and develops patterns of political behavior.

  • The principal institutions of political socialization are:

    • the family

      the schools

      the media


Political behavior in the united states1

Political Behavior in the United States

  • Participation and Apathy

  • Most citizens do not participate in political organizations on local or national levels.

  • Only 8 percent of people in the United States belong to a political club or organization.

  • Not more than 20 percent have ever contacted an elected official regarding an issue or problem.


Political behavior in the united states2

Political Behavior in the United States

Table 14.1: Political Party Preferences in the United States


Political behavior in the united states3

(Population 18 and older, in millions)

203

186

92

76

130

19

Non-votingpopulation

Votingpopulation

111

111

111

Totalpopulation

Citizenpopulation

Registeredpopulation

Political Behavior in the United States

Voter Turnout: 2000

Source: Figure 1 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states4

(Population 18 and older, in millions)

Number voted

Percent ofregisteredvotersvoting

Number registered but not voting

Year

85.5

110.8

2000

18.7

82.3

1996

105.0

22.6

113.9

90.0

1992

12.7

86.2

1988

102.2

16.4

14.2

87.7

1984

101.9

88.6

1980

93.1

12.0

86.7

1976

88.7

11.1

12.7

87.1

1972

85.8

79.0

91.2

1968

7.6

Political Behavior in the United States

Voting in Presidential Elections: 1918--2000

Source: Figure 3 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states5

Proportion not citizensin the voting-agepopulation

2.2

Whitenon-Hispanic

60.4

61.8

Voting rate basedon voting-agepopulation

86.4

5.7

53.5

Black

56.8

84.2

Voting rate basedon voting-age, citizenpopulation

41.3

25.4

Asian andPacific Islander

43.3

82.8

Voting rate basedon voting-age, citizen,registered population

39.1

Hispanic(of any race)

27.5

45.1

78.6

Political Behavior in the United States

Citizenship and Voting Rate by Race and Ethnicity: 2000

Source: Figure 2 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states6

(Percent who voted of the voting-age citizen population)

72.2

70.1

66.5

66.3

60.5

50.5

36.1

18 to 24

25 to 34

35 to 44

45 to 54

55 to 64

65 to 74

75 and over

Political Behavior in the United States

Voting by Age: 2000

Source: Figure 4 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states7

(Percent who voted of the voting-age citizen population)

81.9

75.4

63.1

52.5

39.3

38.0

Less than9th grade

9th to12th grade,no diploma

Highschoolgraduate

Somecollege orassociatedegree

Bachelor’sdegree

Advanceddegree

Political Behavior in the United States

Voting by Educational Attainment: 2000

Source: Figure 5 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states8

(Percent who voted of the voting-age citizen population)

Too busy

20.9

14.8

Illness or emergency

12.2

Not interested

10.2

Out of town

10.2

Other reason

Didn’t like candidates

7.7

7.5

Refused, don’t know

6.9

Registration problems

4.0

Forgot

2.6

Inconvenient

2.4

Transportation problems

Bad weather

0.6

Political Behavior in the United States

Reason Given for Not Voting: 2000

Source: Figure 8 in Annie Jamieson et al. for the Bureau of the Census. 2002. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2000. Current Population Reports Series P20-542. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p20-542.pdf.


Political behavior in the united states9

Political Behavior in the United States

  • Women in Politics

  • Women are significantly underrepresented in government in the United States.

  • In 1999, there were 67 women in Congress, accounting for 58 of the 435 members of the House and 9 of the 100 members of the Senate.

  • Often, women in office or running for office are treated differently than men by the media.


Political behavior in the united states10

Political Behavior in the United States

Women in National Legislatures


Political behavior in the united states11

Political Behavior in the United States

Anti-Tobacco Vote and Campaign Contributions


Models of power structure in the united states

Models of Power Structure in the United States

  • Power Elite Models

  • Mills’s Model

    • --Mills described a small ruling elite of military, industrial, and governmental leaders.

    • --Power rested in the hands of a few, inside and outside of government….the power elite.

    • --The power elite are mostly male, white, and upper class.


Models of power structure in the united states1

Models of Power Structure in the United States

  • Power Elite Models

  • Domhoff’s Model

    • --This model stresses the roles played by elites of the corporate community and the leaders of policy-formation organizations such as:

      chambers of commerce

      labor unions


Models of power structure in the united states2

Models of Power Structure in the United States

Figure 14.1: Power Elite Models


Models of power structure in the united states3

Models of Power Structure in the United States

  • Pluralist Model

  • According to the pluralist model, many conflicting groups within the community have access to government, so that no single group is dominant.

  • A variety of groups play a significant role in decision making.


The changing economy

The Changing Economy

  • The Face of the Workforce

  • Sociologists foresee a workforce increasingly composed of women and racial and ethnic minorities.

  • A more diverse workforce means relationships between workers are more likely to cross gender, racial, and ethnic lines.


The changing economy1

The Changing Economy

Figure 14.2: Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Labor Force, 1986 and 2008


The changing economy2

Income in 2000 dollars

Recession

40,000

$37,339

35,000

Male, full-time,year-round workers

$31,040

30,000

$27,355

Male, total workers

25,000

Female, full-time,year-round workers

$20,311

20,000

15,000

Female, total workers

10,000

5,000

0

1967

1970

1973

1976

1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1994

1997

2000

The Changing Economy

Median Earnings of Workers 15 Years Old and Over by Work Experience and Sex: 1967--2000

Source: Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Robert W. Cleveland, and Marc L. Oemer. 2001. Figure 3 in Money Income in the United States: 2000. Current Population Reports Series P60-213. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income00.html.


The changing economy3

$4,680

(Average earnings indollars for peopleemployed full-timefor the previous4 months)

$3,208

Engineering

$3,046

$4,416

Computers

$2,996

$3,962

$2,727

Business

$2,373

$3,645

$2,783

Science

$2,412

Bachelor’sdegree

$3,455

Liberal Arts

$2,586

$3,292

Social Science

Associatedegree

$2,660

Education

$2,802

Vocationalcertificate

Vocationalstudies

$3,197

$2,429

$3,808

$2,804

Other

$2,578

The Changing Economy

Monthly Earnings by Field of Training for Selected Education Levels: 1996

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000. Figure 9-3. (Internet Release) accessed at http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/profile2000.html#cont.


The changing economy4

The Changing Economy

  • Deindustrialization

  • Deindustrialization is the systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in the basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants.

  • Downsizing is a reduction in a company’s workforce.


The changing economy5

The Changing Economy

  • E-Commerce

  • E-commerce is a term for the numerous ways that people with access to the Internet can do business from their computers.

  • The growth of e-commerce means jobs in a new line of industry as well as growth for related industries.


The changing economy6

The Changing Economy

  • The Contingency Workforce

  • With downsizing and deindustrialization, a contingency workforce has developed, in which workers are hired only for as long as they are needed.

  • The contingency workforce has been termed the temping of America.

  • According to one estimate, contingency workers constitute about one-fourth of the nation’s paid labor force.


The environment

The Environment

  • Environmental Problems: An Overview

  • Air Pollution

    • --In cities, air pollution is primarily caused by automobiles and emissions from electric power plants and heavy industries.

    • --The World Health Organization estimates that up to 700,000 premature deaths per year could be prevented if pollutants were brought to safer levels.


The environment1

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

Nitrogen oxides

0.8

0.6

0.4

Sulfur dioxide

0.2

0.0

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

1900

1910

The Environment

Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions per Unit of GNP Since 1900

Source: Office of the President. 2000. Economic Report of the President: Transmitted to the Congress, February 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 242.


The environment2

The Environment

  • Environmental Problems: An Overview

  • Water Pollution

    • --Dumping of waste materials by industries and local governments has polluted streams, rivers, and lakes.

    • --Many bodies of water are now unsafe for drinking, fishing, and swimming.

    • --Pollution of the oceans are now becoming a major concern.


The environment3

The Environment

  • Environmental Problems: An Overview

  • Contamination of Land

    • --A significant part of land contamination comes from the tremendous demand for landfills to handle the nation’s waste.


The environment4

The Environment

The Impact of Global Warming


The environment5

The Environment

  • Functionalism and Human Ecology

  • The natural environment serves three basic functions for humans:

    • The environment provides the resources essential for life.

    • The environment serves as a waste repository.

    • The environment houses our species.


The environment6

The Environment

  • Conflict View of Environmental Issues

  • Less affluent nations are being forced to exploit their mineral deposits, forests, and fisheries to meet debt obligations.

  • The poor turn to the only means of survival available to them:

    plow mountain slopes

    burn plots in rain forests

    overgraze grasslands


The environment7

The Environment

  • Conflict View of Environmental Issues

  • Western industrialized nations account for 25 percent of the world’s population.

  • Western industrialized nations are responsible for 85 percent of worldwide consumption.


Social policy and the economy

Social Policy and the Economy

  • Affirmative Action

  • The Issue

    • --1961 executive order issued by J. F. Kennedy called for contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.”

    • --Currently, affirmative action refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities.


Social policy and the economy1

Social Policy and the Economy

  • Affirmative Action

  • The Setting

    • --Discriminatory actions currently outlawed include:

      • Discrimination based on race, sex, or both

      • Word-of-mouth recruitment among all-White or all-male workforces

      • Recruitment exclusively in schools or colleges that are limited to one sex or are predominantly White

      • Discrimination against married and/or pregnant women

      • Advertising in male and female help wanted columns when gender is not an occupational qualification

      • Job qualifications and tests that are unrelated to the job


Social policy and the economy2

Social Policy and the Economy

Figure 14.3: U.S. Median Income by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender, 1999


Social policy and the economy3

Social Policy and the Economy

Minority-Owned Firms as a Percent of Total Firms in State: 1997

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Minority-Owned Business Enterprises. 1997Economic Census. Slide 17 accessed at http://www.census.gov/csd/mwb/Minorityp.htm.


Social policy and the economy4

Social Policy and the Economy

  • Affirmative Action

  • Sociological Insights

    • --Conflict theorists view affirmative action as a legislative attempt to reduce the inequality embedded in the social structure by increasing the opportunities of groups that have been deprived in the past.

    • --Interactionists focus on situations in which some women and minorities in underrepresented professions and schools are often mistakenly viewed as products of affirmative action.


Social policy and the economy5

Social Policy and the Economy

  • Affirmative Action

  • Policy Initiatives

    • --Opponents of affirmative action insist that its goals are, in fact, quotas that lead to reverse discrimination.

    • --A 1996 California measure prohibited any program that gives preference to women and minorities in college admissions, hiring, promotion, or government contracts. It aims to abolish affirmative action.

    • --The United States is not alone in its struggle to find acceptable ways of compensating for generations of inequality between racial groups.


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