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ISSCC 2006 trends GPS and RFID ready chips. Ali Fotowat, PhD. Managing Director KavoshCom Asia R&D. Feb 17, 2006. MiMOS Malaysia. All in one mobile phone solutions are coming. ISSCC 2006 paper 26.7 Single chip quad band GSM from Infineon. Multi-mode challenge!!

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ISSCC 2006 trends

GPS and RFID ready chips

Ali Fotowat, PhD.

Managing Director

KavoshCom Asia R&D

Feb 17, 2006

MiMOS Malaysia



ISSCC 2006 paper 26.7 Single chip

quad band GSM from Infineon



Multi-mode challenge!!

Start thinking about re-using the blocks



ISSCC 2006 Wireless


Impulse Radio

6.1IMEC and Vrije Univ, 3-5 GHz Rx only, ZIF, LO generation from 3 phases, correlator design, 1.8 volts/16 mA, 500 MHz BW

6.2NU of Singapore, 3-5 GHz Tx and Rx, similar DLL correlator, 1.8 volts, Tx 76mW, Rx 81 mW, ADC 80 mW, brute force multiple inductor method for bandshaping



UWB 3-5GHz

Impulse Radio from National U of Singapore



UWB Impulse Radio from Singapore

3-5 GHz RF pulse shaping in Tx



ISSCC 2006 Wireless


Frequency hopped

6.3TZero Tech, Sunnyvale,



6.6Realtek, Taiwan & Irvine,

6.7Ind. Tech. Research Instit. Taiwan,

3.1 to 10.6 GHz, antenna array (Tzero), ZIF, back bias

LO offset cancellation method (NEC), broadband LNA

with shielded low parasitic cap (NEC), DDS based LO

generation (Infineon), frequency plan by single VCO

source and frequency division and multiplication for

fast hopping, non have the baseband MAC on chip




Synthesizer technique (National Taiwan Univ)



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Mobile TV

(No new technical material, all standard design but

satisfying an emerging market)

33.1, 33.2, 33.3 Broadcom (Athena), Samsung, Microtune, DVB-H RF/Analog, 470-862 MHz European, 1670-1675 MHz American standard, 0.18 um CMOS except for MicroTune (0.35 um SiGe BiCMOS) about 200 mW in all cases.

33.4 Qualcomm, US MediaFLO standard, RF/Analog, 160 mW

33.5 Integrant, Korea, T-DMB/DAB and ISDB-T low IF less than 100 mW Rx chip (RF/Analog)

33.6 Future Comm, Korea, Streaming DMB 2.6 GHz Rx chip with diversity antenna



ISSCC 2006 Wireless


20.1, 20.2, 20.3 Intel, Atheros, Analog Devices, 2x2 MIMO (Intel), 11a/b/g single RF/Analog chip (only Atheros is full SoC), ZIF (Intel and Analog Devices), double conversion 2/3 1/3 method (Atheros)

20.4Broadcom, A linear direct conversion transmitter with I/Q calibration. They are describing what I patented in 2002!

11.9Pohang U (Korea), CalTech, 260 mW output, 2.4 GHz with a new on chip transformer using 2nd harmonic notch filters.

26.9 UC Berkeley, 1.5 Watts , 1.7 GHz CMOS RF Doherty power amplifier



The new exciting world of MIMO. Intel’s 2x2 with 3dB less RF

power shows 6 dB better EVM and doubles the throughput



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Wireless sensor networks

20.5 UC Berkeley, Extreme low power 2.4 GHz Tx, Rx and VCO each less than 1 mW, back-gate coupling for Quad VCO, LNA plus low power switching mixer, ZIF

20.6Atmel, ZigBee 2.4 GHz 0.18 um CMOS, low IF design (2 MHz IF), 3dBm Tx output, -102 dBm sensitivity.

20.7Matsushita, 430 MHz ISM band low date rate, SOC use 4 level FSK for 2.4 kbits/Sec, 13 dBm Tx output, -120 dBm sensitivity

20.8U of Michigan, A super-regenerative Rx coupled with a synthesizer has frequency selectivity.



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Meet the future automotive radars

10.1, 10.2 CalTech, 77 GHz 4 on-chip Rx and 4 on-chip Tx antennas, beam steering, double conversion 77GHz to 26 GHz (Remember above 26 GHz L’s and C’s and transmission lines are all available)

10.3IBM, 60 GHz Tx and Rx, double conversion 60 GHz to 8.5 GHz, no on chip antenna, image reject LNA (no a big deal with all the available passives)

10.4 National Taiwan U, 60 GHz Transmitter with on-chip antenna, about 5 dBm unsaturated output power



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Digitally controlled Oscillators

We need broad band Oscillators, Varactors are

nonlinear and generate phase noise, use small varactors

for fine tuning range, use MIM caps for coarse tuning,

use thermometer coding digital control of the VCO

frequency and the best choice of overlapping ranges

10.5 Infineon, 9.87 to 10.92 GHz VCO

11.10 U of Linz (Austria), 1.7 to 2.2 GHz

11.1 Fujitsu, 1.8 GHz to 3.3 GHz, you know the frequency you want, you know all the possibilities, use digital algorithm to be there quickly.

11.7 Chinese Academy of Sciences, almost the same but for a ring Osc. Set the needed delays digitally, change 200uSec hop settling to 2-3 uSec.



DCO concept, wide frequency range, low phase noise, process

variation tolerance (This one from Fujitsu)



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Circuit techniques from universities

6.8 UCSD, 3-8 GHz fast tunable UWB 3D LNA

11.5 Intel?, 5 GHz R feedback LNA (Academic value)

11.6 Virginia Tech, 3-5 GHz UWB LNA with better miller effect modeling

17.8 National Taiwan U, 54 GHz 3 stage LNA

11.8 CalTech, Broadband low frequency to 77 GHz on-chip combiner (funnel)

17.6 Cornell Univ, MEMs on chip filter, 425 MHz center frequency, 1MHz wide (Q = 400)

17.7 CSEM Switzerland, On chip BAW filter with 2.5 GHz center frequency and 120 MHz BW (Q = 20)



ISSCC 2006 Wireless

Circuit techniques from universities

11.2 Tech U Denmark, VCO with better phase noise

11.3 UCLA, Quad LC VCO with less phase noise

11.4 Hong Kong U., Quad LC VCO with transformer coupling

17.4 UCLA, Q60 GHz VCO with on-chip quarter wave resonator

17.5 LAAS, CNRS France, 5 GHz VCO with film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR)

And even more ideas but less significant in sessions 25

and 32



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

Other key RF

26.7 Infineon, Single chip GSM, ZIF, Quad band, have solved coupling issues from base band digital to RF VCO with capacitive blocking and shielding

26.8 Atheros, Single chip PHS, ZIF, nothing to it, I was almost crying, I had 3 years time!

26.1 U of Pavia, A low voltage 750 mV ZIF GSM front end with CMFB for improved ip2

26.4 Hitachi, Wideband image rejection for low IF circuits depends on digital G and  measurements and correction circuits can improve image rejection to 50 dB good for a GSM low IF design.



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

Other key RF

26.6 UCLA, Most probably the best paper with a tutorial on it before ISSCC. The key solution to software radio RF front-end design, broadband LNA, use 6 phase instead of 4 phase switching mixer for low harmonics, use reconfigurable switch-cap Sinc function decimation filters to gradually reduce sampling rate and filter at the same time without aliasing

26.10 Helsinki U, The alternative to the decimation filters above uses  modulator to 84 dB base-band dynamic range for GSM and 50 dB for WCDMA



Wideband single-ended to differential LNA, uses common source

and common gate amplifiers with some gain control



Six phase mixing uses the improved switching performance of

nanometer devices while solving the harmonic generation issues



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

Other key RF

26.5 UCSD, 1.8 GHz spur cancelled fractional N synthesizer, with an additional loop the obviously known nature of spurs can be negatively subtracted before the loop filter

19.5 RF Domus Interesting canonically reduced topology Gm-C filter



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

RFID (Print Organic RFID’s, not yet!)

15.1 Poly IC (Infineon spin-off), Organic diode, organic inverter, rectify, make ring Osc. Go and back-scatter

15.2Philips Research Eindhoven, A working tag at 125 KHz, rectifier works at higher frequencies, large printable devices, scratchable, electrically unstable with time.



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

RFID (Serious state of the art)

17.1 Hitachi’s new MuChip, Now 0.15 mm x 0.15 mm with 7.5 um thickness on Si on Insulator technology, use active body bias to reduce threshold voltages, only 40% cost reduction, 48 cm distance, 128 bit simple ROM, mounting cost is now bigger than chip cost.

17.2Fujitsu, A ISO-18000-6, 0.35 um FeRAM CMOS technology, 1.23 mm x 1.5 mm die size, use loose RF power in the air to charge Vth of devices! Four meters distance for 4 Watts directed EIRP, 129 tags/Sec R/W operation



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

RFID (Serious state of the art)

17.3 CEA-LETI France, 13.56 MHz RFID, combines rectifier and demodulator using  modulator to save power, increases throughput to 3.4 Mbits/Sec. Many ambiguities in the paper!



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)


26.2 U of Pavia, 1.2 volts, 4.5 mA stacked LNA, Mixer, VCO front end for GPS, no IF filter and output driver.

26.3 RF Domus, A 20 mW, 3.2 mm2 GPS RF, more expensive SiGe BiCMOS technology, can withstand GSM Tx blockers with external LNA!, fractional N synthesizer for any available Xtal LO source, non-flat IF spectrum!, unnecessary additional Quad loop for image rejection!, 4 MHz IF like ours



ISSCC 2006 (Wireless)

GPS chip leaves a lot to be desired. Ours is better and cheaper