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Post-WWII De-Colonization in Africa. Senegal: Start of the negritude movement. Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values) Spreads through Africa Nationalism. Explosion of new nations in the world.

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Senegal start of the negritude movement
Senegal: Start of the negritude movement

  • Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values)

  • Spreads through Africa

  • Nationalism




South africa
South Africa short time


Awkward independence
Awkward independence short time

  • Boers vs. British (vs. natives)

  • 1910 – S. Africa gains self-rule

    • To appease the Dutch, minority whites have all the power


Early attempts at liberation
Early attempts at liberation short time

  • In 1912 – African National Congress was established

    • Designed to unite the African people


Apartheid
apartheid short time

  • 1948 – creates TOTAL separation of whites and blacks

    • No social contract

  • 1959 Homeland

    • Blacks (75% of S. African population) crammed into 13% of territory


Africans fight back
Africans fight back short time

  • 1976 – Riots against school policies in Soweto leave 600 students dead

  • NECKLACING of complaint blacks


Civil rights leaders
Civil Rights leaders short time

  • Nelson Mandela

    • Civil Rights leader jailed for 27 years for speaking out against Apartheid

  • Stephen Biko (1977)

    • Civil Rights beaten to death WHILE in police custody


  • After Soweto, Mandela, short timeBiko…Black erupt

    • 1986 – State of Emergency

  • Desmond Tutu

    • Rallied world to boycott South African goods and isolate the nation

    • Olympic ban


1989 short time

  • White S. African leader F.W. de Klerk bends to pressure, legalized ANC, and released Mandela from prison

  • Over next 18 months, apartheid broke apart

    • Plan a new vote


Victory at last
Victory at last short time

  • April 1994 Nelson Mandela elected president

    • 1996 New Constitution is written

  • Problems today:

    • High crime – rape and murder worst on earth

    • Unemployment (40%) and Poverty (60%)

    • AIDS (millions infected)


Legacy of apartheid
Legacy of Apartheid short time

4 Corner Debate

Nelson Mandela was seen to be a revolutionary leader but as a young man he was arrested for terroristic acts. The memory of Mandela is false.


Rwanda 1994
Rwanda 1994 short time

“When we moved in, it was as if we were competing over the killing…seeing people rolling around and screaming in agony, with no arms, no legs…We were not ourselves…We had been attacked by the devil.”


Background to conflict
Background to conflict short time

  • Rwanda is 85% Hutu and 15% Tutsi

    • Under Belgian rule, Tutsis were privileged elite

  • After colonialism, majority Hutus wanted power…and revenge


The genocide
The Genocide short time

  • 6 August 1994 – Hutu president’s plane shot down

    • Tutsis blamed

  • Immediately Tutsis rounded up and killed

  • 937,000 killed in

    100 days


The fallout
The fallout short time

  • Hutu forces and Interahamwe militias led the massacres

  • Tutsis fought back, took control of Kigali in 1994

    • 2,000,000 Hutus fled in fear


Ending the genocide
Ending the genocide short time

  • Tutsi Paul Kagame new president

    • Hunting down genocide leaders

    • Interahamwe still trying to destabilize


The genocide in rwanda
The genocide in Rwanda short time

4 Corner Debate

African poverty and instability are a result of the faults of the Africans. Colonization can no longer be blamed for these issues.


Sudan and darfur
Sudan and Darfur short time


Sudan 2003
Sudan - 2003 short time

  • Christian and Muslim Black rebel in Darfur

    • Angry over Sudanese gov’t bias to majorities Arab Muslims

    • Created Sudanese Liberation Army


Government response
Government response short time

  • Sudanese gov’t bombs, then Janjaweed militias then do the dirty work

    • Denied by gov’t (but supported and armed by the official establishment)

  • Janjaweed Militia

    • Slaughter, sex camps, and pillaging

    • Refugee crisis


Genocide
genocide short time

  • 300,000 killed

  • 3,000,000 ethnically cleansed

  • 200,000 refugees

  • Starvation and lawlessness


4 Corner Debate short time

Darfur doesn’t matter.


Other issues in modern africa
Other Issues in modern short timeafrica


Global Water Stress short time

Famine

Famine- Ethiopia

(Band Aid, Live Aid, We Are the World, Hands Across America)


Live 8
Live 8 short time

  • Debt forgiveness concerts

    • Led by producer Bob Geldof (Live Aid) and Bono

    • African nations are in HUGE debt as they have borrowed money to develop


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