Post wwii de colonization in africa
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Post-WWII De-Colonization in Africa. Senegal: Start of the negritude movement. Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values) Spreads through Africa Nationalism. Explosion of new nations in the world.

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Post-WWII De-Colonization in Africa

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Post wwii de colonization in africa

Post-WWII De-Colonization in Africa


Senegal start of the negritude movement

Senegal: Start of the negritude movement

  • Movement to celebrate traditionalism in Africa (music, poetry, culture, and values)

  • Spreads through Africa

  • Nationalism


Explosion of new nations in the world

Explosion of new nations in the world


Africa produced many newly independent nations in a very short time

Africa produced many newly-independent nations in a very short time


South africa

South Africa


Awkward independence

Awkward independence

  • Boers vs. British (vs. natives)

  • 1910 – S. Africa gains self-rule

    • To appease the Dutch, minority whites have all the power


Early attempts at liberation

Early attempts at liberation

  • In 1912 – African National Congress was established

    • Designed to unite the African people


Apartheid

apartheid

  • 1948 – creates TOTAL separation of whites and blacks

    • No social contract

  • 1959 Homeland

    • Blacks (75% of S. African population) crammed into 13% of territory


Africans fight back

Africans fight back

  • 1976 – Riots against school policies in Soweto leave 600 students dead

  • NECKLACING of complaint blacks


Civil rights leaders

Civil Rights leaders

  • Nelson Mandela

    • Civil Rights leader jailed for 27 years for speaking out against Apartheid

  • Stephen Biko (1977)

    • Civil Rights beaten to death WHILE in police custody


Post wwii de colonization in africa

  • After Soweto, Mandela, Biko…Black erupt

    • 1986 – State of Emergency

  • Desmond Tutu

    • Rallied world to boycott South African goods and isolate the nation

    • Olympic ban


Post wwii de colonization in africa

1989

  • White S. African leader F.W. de Klerk bends to pressure, legalized ANC, and released Mandela from prison

  • Over next 18 months, apartheid broke apart

    • Plan a new vote


Victory at last

Victory at last

  • April 1994 Nelson Mandela elected president

    • 1996 New Constitution is written

  • Problems today:

    • High crime – rape and murder worst on earth

    • Unemployment (40%) and Poverty (60%)

    • AIDS (millions infected)


Legacy of apartheid

Legacy of Apartheid

4 Corner Debate

Nelson Mandela was seen to be a revolutionary leader but as a young man he was arrested for terroristic acts. The memory of Mandela is false.


Rwanda 1994

Rwanda 1994

“When we moved in, it was as if we were competing over the killing…seeing people rolling around and screaming in agony, with no arms, no legs…We were not ourselves…We had been attacked by the devil.”


Background to conflict

Background to conflict

  • Rwanda is 85% Hutu and 15% Tutsi

    • Under Belgian rule, Tutsis were privileged elite

  • After colonialism, majority Hutus wanted power…and revenge


The genocide

The Genocide

  • 6 August 1994 – Hutu president’s plane shot down

    • Tutsis blamed

  • Immediately Tutsis rounded up and killed

  • 937,000 killed in

    100 days


The fallout

The fallout

  • Hutu forces and Interahamwe militias led the massacres

  • Tutsis fought back, took control of Kigali in 1994

    • 2,000,000 Hutus fled in fear


Ending the genocide

Ending the genocide

  • Tutsi Paul Kagame new president

    • Hunting down genocide leaders

    • Interahamwe still trying to destabilize


The genocide in rwanda

The genocide in Rwanda

4 Corner Debate

African poverty and instability are a result of the faults of the Africans. Colonization can no longer be blamed for these issues.


Sudan and darfur

Sudan and Darfur


Sudan 2003

Sudan - 2003

  • Christian and Muslim Black rebel in Darfur

    • Angry over Sudanese gov’t bias to majorities Arab Muslims

    • Created Sudanese Liberation Army


Government response

Government response

  • Sudanese gov’t bombs, then Janjaweed militias then do the dirty work

    • Denied by gov’t (but supported and armed by the official establishment)

  • Janjaweed Militia

    • Slaughter, sex camps, and pillaging

    • Refugee crisis


Genocide

genocide

  • 300,000 killed

  • 3,000,000 ethnically cleansed

  • 200,000 refugees

  • Starvation and lawlessness


Post wwii de colonization in africa

4 Corner Debate

Darfur doesn’t matter.


Other issues in modern africa

Other Issues in modern africa


Post wwii de colonization in africa

Global Water Stress

Famine

Famine- Ethiopia

(Band Aid, Live Aid, We Are the World, Hands Across America)


Live 8

Live 8

  • Debt forgiveness concerts

    • Led by producer Bob Geldof (Live Aid) and Bono

    • African nations are in HUGE debt as they have borrowed money to develop


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