What is management chapter 1 review
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What is Management ? Chapter 1 Review. Mr. Sherpinsky Business Management Class Council Rock School District. The Business World Today. Constant change! Technology Society Environment Competition Diversity. What is Management?.

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What is Management ? Chapter 1 Review

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What is management chapter 1 review

What is Management?Chapter 1 Review

Mr. Sherpinsky

Business Management Class

Council Rock School District


The business world today

The Business World Today

  • Constant change!

    • Technology

    • Society

    • Environment

    • Competition

    • Diversity


What is management

What is Management?

  • Management:The process of deciding how best to use a business’s resources to produce good or provide services…

  • Organization’s Resources:

    • Employees

    • Equipment

    • Money


Levels of management

Levels of Management

  • Senior management

    • Establishes the goal/objectives of the business

    • Decides how to use the company’s resources

    • Not involved in the day-to-day problems

    • Set the direction the company will follow

    • Board of Directors, CEO, COO, senior vice presidents


Levels of management1

Levels of Management

  • Middle management

    • Responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets

    • Sets goals for specific areas of the business

    • Decides which employees in each area must do to meet goals

    • Department heads, district sales managers


Levels of management2

Levels of Management

  • Supervisory management

    • Make sure the day-to-day operations of the business run smoothly

    • Responsible for the people who physically produce the company's products or services

    • Forepersons, crew leaders, store managers

    • Also called “Line” managers


The management process

The Management Process

3 ways to examine how management works:

  • Tasks performed

    • Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling

  • Roles played

    • Set of behaviors associated with a particular job

    • Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making

  • Skills needed

    • Conceptual, human relations, technical


Management tasks

Management Tasks

  • 5 Major Tasks Performed:

    • Planning

    • Organizing

    • Staffing

    • Leading

    • Controlling


The management process1

The Management Process

  • Planning

    • Decides company goals and the actions to meet them

      • CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software program


The management process2

The Management Process

  • Organizing

    • Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them

      • A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarket


The management process3

The Management Process

  • Staffing

    • Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people

      • A restaurant manager interviews and trains servers


The management process4

The Management Process

  • Leading

    • Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks

    • Keeping the lines of communication open

      • Holding regular staff meetings

    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers


The management process5

The Management Process

  • Controlling

    • Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met

      • Analyzing accounting records

      • Make changes if financial standards not being met

    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers


Relative amount of emphasis placed on each function of management

Relative Amount of Emphasis Placed on Each Function of Management

Function


Management roles

Management Roles

  • Managers have authority within organizations

    • Managers take on different roles to best use their authority

      • Interpersonal roles

      • Information-related roles

      • Decision-making roles


Mintzberg s management roles

Mintzberg’s Management Roles

  • Interpersonal roles

    • A manager’s relationships with people

      • Figurehead: Performs symbolic duties

      • Leader: Establishes work atmosphere and motivates subordinates

      • Liaison: Develops and maintains webs of contacts outside of the organization


Mintzberg s management roles1

Mintzberg’s Management Roles

  • Informational-related roles

    • Provide knowledge, news or advice to employees

      • Monitor: Collect all types of information relevant and useful to organization

      • Disseminator: Gives other people the information they need to make decisions

      • Spokesperson: Transmits information to the outside world


Mintzberg s management roles2

Mintzberg’s Management Roles

  • Decisional-making roles

    • Makes changes in policies, resolves conflicts, decides how to best use resources

      • Entrepreneur: Initiates controlled change in the organization to adapt to changing environment

      • Disturbance Handler: Deal with the unexpected changes

      • Resource Allocator: Makes decisions on the use of organizational resources

      • Negotiator: Deals with other organizations and individuals


Mintzberg s findings

Mintzberg’s Findings

  • Mintzberg found that most managers are often placed into situations beyond their control such as:

    • Constant interruptions

    • Jumping from subject to subject

    • Problem to Problem

  • Rarely giving undivided or uninterrupted attention to anything for any length of time


Management skills

Management Skills

  • All levels of management require a combination of conceptual, human relations, and technical skills

    • Conceptual skills most important at senior management level

    • Technical skills most important at lower levels

    • Human relations skills important at all levels


Conceptual human relations and technical skills

Conceptual, Human Relations, and Technical Skills

  • Human Relation Skills

  • Need to work well together

  • Resolving conflicts

  • Forming partnerships

Conceptual Skills

  • Decision making planning, and organizing

  • Understanding how different businesses relate

  • Technical Skills

  • Abilities used to perform their job

  • Training people to use a new system


Management skills1

Management Skills

  • Conceptual skills

    • Skills that help managers understand how different parts of a business relate to one another and to the business as a whole

      • Decision making, planning, and organizing


Management skills2

Management Skills

  • Human relations skills

    • Skills managers need to understand and work well with people while forming partnerships

      • Interviewing job applicants, forming partnerships with other businesses, resolving conflicts


Management skills3

Management Skills

  • Technical skills

    • The specific abilities that people use to perform their jobs

      • Operating various software applications

      • Overseeing things like: designing a brochure, training people to use a new budgeting system


History of management

History of Management

  • Knowledge is Power!

  • Even in life!

    • Where you’re going, where you’ve been!

    • Management is relatively a modern concept…


Causes of the industrial revolution

Causes of the Industrial Revolution

  • Many people left their farms to work in factories

    • Professional managers supervised their work

  • Changes in technology, communication, and transportation

    • Telegraph and cable lines extended across the U.S. after the Civil War

    • Railroad lines, canals, roads, steamships


The break up of trusts

The Break-Up of Trusts

  • The Sherman Act, 1890

    • Made it illegal for companies to create monopolies

    • Intended to restore competition

    • Example

      • Standard Oil Company was broken into smaller companies so that other oil companies could compete with the former giant

      • John D. Rockefeller


Frederick w taylor and scientific management

Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management

  • Father of Scientific Management

  • Wanted to find ways to motivate workers to work harder

  • To increase efficiency, he tried to figure “one best way” to perform a particular task

    • Used a stopwatch to determine which work method was most efficient

    • These time and motion studies lead to scientific management principles


The hawthorne studies of productivity

The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity

  • In the roaring 20s--Researchers began to look at the relationship between working conditions and productivity

  • Series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in Cicero, IL

    • Lowered the lighting and expected to see productivity to fall

    • What happened?

    • Productivity increased…Why?


The hawthorne studies of productivity1

The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity

  • Researchers concluded that productivity rose because workers worked harder when they received attention

  • Hawthorne effect

    • Change of any kind increases productivity

  • Factors other than the physical environment affected worker productivity

    • Psychological and social conditions, effective supervision


The hawthorne studies of productivity2

The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity

  • Informal group pressures

    • Teaming tends to drive everyone not to let the others on the team down….

  • Individual recognition

    • Highlighting a worker contribution tends to motivate them to work harder

  • Participation in decision-making

    • When workers are part of the process they work harder


Abraham h maslow and the hierarchy of needs

Abraham H. Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs

  • According to Maslow

    • All people have five basic types of needs

    • People fulfill lower-level needs before seeking to fulfill higher-level needs

      • One set of needs must be met before another is sought

      • “Hierarchy of needs” is his grouping and ordering of physical, security, social, status, and self-actualization needs


Maslow s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Professional management

Professional Management

  • The professional manager (started in the 1930’s)

    • Defined: Career person who does not necessarily have controlling interest in the business but is paid to perform management functions


Theory x

Theory X

  • Assumes that people are basically lazy and will avoid working if they can

  • Managers impose strict rules and make sure that all important decision are make only by them


Theory y

Theory Y

  • Assumes that people find satisfaction in their work

  • Managers believe that people will work productively if put in the right environment

  • People are creative & will come up with good ideas if encouraged to do so

  • Employees given more freedom and allowed to make mistakes


Theory z

Theory Z

  • William Ouchi, management researcher

  • Integrates Japanese and American business practices

    • Japanese emphasis on collective decision making and concern for employees

    • American emphasis on individual responsibility

    • Companies commit to people


Japanese american and theory z organizations

Japanese, American, and Theory Z Organizations


Centralization vs decentralization

Centralization vs. Decentralization

  • Centralization

    • The concentration of power among a few key decision makers

  • Decentralization

    • Process by which decisions are made by managers at various levels within an organization


Women and minorities in management

Women and Minoritiesin Management

  • In the last four decades, the number of women and minorities have joined the workforce has tripled

    • Commonplace to hold positions at all levels of management in companies of all sizes (Well represented at all levels of management)

  • Women and minorities serve as the CEOs of prestigious businesses

    • PepsiCo, Kraft, Archer Daniels, Avon, Harpo, eBay, Lucent, Dupont, IBM, XEROX, Yahoo


Women and minorities in management1

Women and Minoritiesin Management

  • Caucasian malesstill hold most senior management positions

  • Glass ceiling: the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the world of business

    • Steadily becoming a window of opportunity!

    • Global Influences


What is an entrepreneur

What is an Entrepreneur?

What do you think an Entrepreneur is????

  • Defined: People who own, operate, and take the risk of a business venture are called entrepreneurs.

  • These people are engaged in entrepreneurship:which is the process of running a business of one’s own.

  • Difference between professional managers and entrepreneurs: Boss/No Boss


Employees vs entrepreneurs

Employees vs. Entrepreneurs

  • Entrepreneurs assume RISK!!!!

  • Employees are different than entrepreneurs, employees are people who work for someone else.

    • Entrepreneurs are directly affected by the outcomes of their decisions.


Intrapreneurship

Intrapreneurship

  • An Intrapreneur is an employee who is given funds and freedom to create a special unit or department within a company in order to develop a new product, process, or service

    • 3M utilized intrapreneurship to create Post-It notes


Major concept

Major Concept

  • Management Principles should be followed except when they don’t fit a particular situation


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