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What is Management ? Chapter 1 Review. Mr. Sherpinsky Business Management Class Council Rock School District. The Business World Today. Constant change! Technology Society Environment Competition Diversity. What is Management?.

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What is management chapter 1 review

What is Management?Chapter 1 Review

Mr. Sherpinsky

Business Management Class

Council Rock School District

The business world today
The Business World Today

  • Constant change!

    • Technology

    • Society

    • Environment

    • Competition

    • Diversity

What is management
What is Management?

  • Management:The process of deciding how best to use a business’s resources to produce good or provide services…

  • Organization’s Resources:

    • Employees

    • Equipment

    • Money

Levels of management
Levels of Management

  • Senior management

    • Establishes the goal/objectives of the business

    • Decides how to use the company’s resources

    • Not involved in the day-to-day problems

    • Set the direction the company will follow

    • Board of Directors, CEO, COO, senior vice presidents

Levels of management1
Levels of Management

  • Middle management

    • Responsible for meeting the goals that senior management sets

    • Sets goals for specific areas of the business

    • Decides which employees in each area must do to meet goals

    • Department heads, district sales managers

Levels of management2
Levels of Management

  • Supervisory management

    • Make sure the day-to-day operations of the business run smoothly

    • Responsible for the people who physically produce the company's products or services

    • Forepersons, crew leaders, store managers

    • Also called “Line” managers

The management process
The Management Process

3 ways to examine how management works:

  • Tasks performed

    • Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling

  • Roles played

    • Set of behaviors associated with a particular job

    • Interpersonal, information-based, decision-making

  • Skills needed

    • Conceptual, human relations, technical

Management tasks
Management Tasks

  • 5 Major Tasks Performed:

    • Planning

    • Organizing

    • Staffing

    • Leading

    • Controlling

The management process1
The Management Process

  • Planning

    • Decides company goals and the actions to meet them

      • CEO sets a goal of increasing sales by 10% in the next year by developing a new software program

The management process2
The Management Process

  • Organizing

    • Groups related activities together and assigns employees to perform them

      • A manager sets up a team of employees to restock an aisle in a supermarket

The management process3
The Management Process

  • Staffing

    • Decides how many and what kind of people a business needs to meet its goals and then recruits, selects, and trains the right people

      • A restaurant manager interviews and trains servers

The management process4
The Management Process

  • Leading

    • Provides guidance employees need to perform their tasks

    • Keeping the lines of communication open

      • Holding regular staff meetings

    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers

The management process5
The Management Process

  • Controlling

    • Measures how the business performs to ensure that financial goals are being met

      • Analyzing accounting records

      • Make changes if financial standards not being met

    • One of the most important tasks of supervisory or line managers

Management roles
Management Roles Management

  • Managers have authority within organizations

    • Managers take on different roles to best use their authority

      • Interpersonal roles

      • Information-related roles

      • Decision-making roles

Mintzberg s management roles
Mintzberg’s Management Management Roles

  • Interpersonal roles

    • A manager’s relationships with people

      • Figurehead: Performs symbolic duties

      • Leader: Establishes work atmosphere and motivates subordinates

      • Liaison: Develops and maintains webs of contacts outside of the organization

Mintzberg s management roles1
Mintzberg’s Management Management Roles

  • Informational-related roles

    • Provide knowledge, news or advice to employees

      • Monitor: Collect all types of information relevant and useful to organization

      • Disseminator: Gives other people the information they need to make decisions

      • Spokesperson: Transmits information to the outside world

Mintzberg s management roles2
Mintzberg’s Management Management Roles

  • Decisional-making roles

    • Makes changes in policies, resolves conflicts, decides how to best use resources

      • Entrepreneur: Initiates controlled change in the organization to adapt to changing environment

      • Disturbance Handler: Deal with the unexpected changes

      • Resource Allocator: Makes decisions on the use of organizational resources

      • Negotiator: Deals with other organizations and individuals

Mintzberg s findings
Mintzberg’s Management Findings

  • Mintzberg found that most managers are often placed into situations beyond their control such as:

    • Constant interruptions

    • Jumping from subject to subject

    • Problem to Problem

  • Rarely giving undivided or uninterrupted attention to anything for any length of time

Management skills
Management Skills Management

  • All levels of management require a combination of conceptual, human relations, and technical skills

    • Conceptual skills most important at senior management level

    • Technical skills most important at lower levels

    • Human relations skills important at all levels

Conceptual human relations and technical skills
Conceptual, Human Relations, and Technical Skills Management

  • Human Relation Skills

  • Need to work well together

  • Resolving conflicts

  • Forming partnerships

Conceptual Skills

  • Decision making planning, and organizing

  • Understanding how different businesses relate

  • Technical Skills

  • Abilities used to perform their job

  • Training people to use a new system

Management skills1
Management Skills Management

  • Conceptual skills

    • Skills that help managers understand how different parts of a business relate to one another and to the business as a whole

      • Decision making, planning, and organizing

Management skills2
Management Skills Management

  • Human relations skills

    • Skills managers need to understand and work well with people while forming partnerships

      • Interviewing job applicants, forming partnerships with other businesses, resolving conflicts

Management skills3
Management Skills Management

  • Technical skills

    • The specific abilities that people use to perform their jobs

      • Operating various software applications

      • Overseeing things like: designing a brochure, training people to use a new budgeting system

History of management
History of Management Management

  • Knowledge is Power!

  • Even in life!

    • Where you’re going, where you’ve been!

    • Management is relatively a modern concept…

Causes of the industrial revolution
Causes of the Industrial Revolution Management

  • Many people left their farms to work in factories

    • Professional managers supervised their work

  • Changes in technology, communication, and transportation

    • Telegraph and cable lines extended across the U.S. after the Civil War

    • Railroad lines, canals, roads, steamships

The break up of trusts
The Break-Up of Trusts Management

  • The Sherman Act, 1890

    • Made it illegal for companies to create monopolies

    • Intended to restore competition

    • Example

      • Standard Oil Company was broken into smaller companies so that other oil companies could compete with the former giant

      • John D. Rockefeller

Frederick w taylor and scientific management
Frederick W. Taylor Managementand Scientific Management

  • Father of Scientific Management

  • Wanted to find ways to motivate workers to work harder

  • To increase efficiency, he tried to figure “one best way” to perform a particular task

    • Used a stopwatch to determine which work method was most efficient

    • These time and motion studies lead to scientific management principles

The hawthorne studies of productivity
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity Management

  • In the roaring 20s--Researchers began to look at the relationship between working conditions and productivity

  • Series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in Cicero, IL

    • Lowered the lighting and expected to see productivity to fall

    • What happened?

    • Productivity increased…Why?

The hawthorne studies of productivity1
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity Management

  • Researchers concluded that productivity rose because workers worked harder when they received attention

  • Hawthorne effect

    • Change of any kind increases productivity

  • Factors other than the physical environment affected worker productivity

    • Psychological and social conditions, effective supervision

The hawthorne studies of productivity2
The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity Management

  • Informal group pressures

    • Teaming tends to drive everyone not to let the others on the team down….

  • Individual recognition

    • Highlighting a worker contribution tends to motivate them to work harder

  • Participation in decision-making

    • When workers are part of the process they work harder

Abraham h maslow and the hierarchy of needs
Abraham H. Maslow and Managementthe Hierarchy of Needs

  • According to Maslow

    • All people have five basic types of needs

    • People fulfill lower-level needs before seeking to fulfill higher-level needs

      • One set of needs must be met before another is sought

      • “Hierarchy of needs” is his grouping and ordering of physical, security, social, status, and self-actualization needs

Professional management
Professional Management Management

  • The professional manager (started in the 1930’s)

    • Defined: Career person who does not necessarily have controlling interest in the business but is paid to perform management functions

Theory x
Theory X Management

  • Assumes that people are basically lazy and will avoid working if they can

  • Managers impose strict rules and make sure that all important decision are make only by them

Theory y
Theory Y Management

  • Assumes that people find satisfaction in their work

  • Managers believe that people will work productively if put in the right environment

  • People are creative & will come up with good ideas if encouraged to do so

  • Employees given more freedom and allowed to make mistakes

Theory z
Theory Z Management

  • William Ouchi, management researcher

  • Integrates Japanese and American business practices

    • Japanese emphasis on collective decision making and concern for employees

    • American emphasis on individual responsibility

    • Companies commit to people

Centralization vs decentralization
Centralization vs. Decentralization Management

  • Centralization

    • The concentration of power among a few key decision makers

  • Decentralization

    • Process by which decisions are made by managers at various levels within an organization

Women and minorities in management
Women and Minorities Managementin Management

  • In the last four decades, the number of women and minorities have joined the workforce has tripled

    • Commonplace to hold positions at all levels of management in companies of all sizes (Well represented at all levels of management)

  • Women and minorities serve as the CEOs of prestigious businesses

    • PepsiCo, Kraft, Archer Daniels, Avon, Harpo, eBay, Lucent, Dupont, IBM, XEROX, Yahoo

Women and minorities in management1
Women and Minorities Managementin Management

  • Caucasian malesstill hold most senior management positions

  • Glass ceiling: the invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the world of business

    • Steadily becoming a window of opportunity!

    • Global Influences

What is an entrepreneur
What Managementis an Entrepreneur?

What do you think an Entrepreneur is????

  • Defined: People who own, operate, and take the risk of a business venture are called entrepreneurs.

  • These people are engaged in entrepreneurship:which is the process of running a business of one’s own.

  • Difference between professional managers and entrepreneurs: Boss/No Boss

Employees vs entrepreneurs
Employees vs. Entrepreneurs Management

  • Entrepreneurs assume RISK!!!!

  • Employees are different than entrepreneurs, employees are people who work for someone else.

    • Entrepreneurs are directly affected by the outcomes of their decisions.

Intrapreneurship Management

  • An Intrapreneur is an employee who is given funds and freedom to create a special unit or department within a company in order to develop a new product, process, or service

    • 3M utilized intrapreneurship to create Post-It notes

Major concept
Major Concept Management

  • Management Principles should be followed except when they don’t fit a particular situation