Chapter 6: Bones Skeletal Tissues. The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure. Introduction - components. The Bones - about 206 Bone tissue , or osseous tissue, is the major component of the skeletal system. Bones are dynamic organs made up of several tissues types.
Figure 5.1 Structure of a Typical Bone
Figure 5.2b,d The Internal Organization of Representative Bones
Figure 5.3a Anatomy of a Representative Bone
Figure 5.4 The Periosteum and Endosteum
Human Growth Hormone (hGH):
(estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
(Ovaries and Testes)
Increases Ca2+ absorption
(Skin and kidneys)
[Insert fig 5.5]
Figure 5.5 Intramembranous Ossification
Figure 5.8 Epiphyseal Cartilages and Lines
1. The perichondrium covering the hyaline cartilage “bone” is infiltrated with blood
2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid against the hyaline cartilage diaphysis, encasing it in a bony collar.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
3. Chondrocytes within the diaphysis hypertrophy and the surrounding cartilage matrix starts to be calcified.
4. The chondrocytes, however, die and the matrix begins to deteriorate.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
5. In month 3, the forming cavities are invaded by a collection of elements called the periosteal bud.
6. The entering osteoclasts partially erode the calcified cartilage matrix.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
7. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid around the remaining fragments of hyaline cartilage forming trabeculae of spongy bone.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
8. As the primary ossification center enlarges, osteoclasts break down the newly formed spongy bone and open up a medullary cavity in the center of the diaphysis.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
9. The epiphyses remain formed of cartilage until shortly before or after birth.
10. Secondary ossification centers form in the epiphyses. The events of ossification are like the events of the diaphysis, except, that spongy bone mains in the internal and no medullary cavity forms.STEPS OF ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION
Epiphyseal before or after birth.
LONGITUDINAL BONE GROWTH
Figure 5.11 Fracture Repair
Table 5.1 Common Bone Marking Terminology
Figure 5.13 Shapes of Bones
Figure 5.14 Examples of Bone Markings