Combustion team
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COMBUSTION TEAM. Advisors: Dr. Darrell Guillaume Dr. Helen Boussalis Dr. Chivey Wu. Team Members: Marisol Avila Johanna Lopez Alonzo Perez. Agenda. Fundamentals Combustion Theory Combustion Chamber Design & Equipment Design CFD Analysis. Testing Capabilities Conclusion Reference

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COMBUSTION TEAM

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Combustion team

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

COMBUSTION TEAM

Advisors:

Dr. Darrell Guillaume

Dr. Helen Boussalis

Dr. Chivey Wu

Team Members:

Marisol Avila

Johanna Lopez

Alonzo Perez


Agenda

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Agenda

  • Fundamentals Combustion Theory

  • Combustion Chamber Design & Equipment

  • Design CFD Analysis

  • Testing Capabilities

  • Conclusion

  • Reference

  • Timeline & Future Work


Process of combustion

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Process of Combustion

Fuel

Exhaust

Oxidizer

Heat

Spark

Bi-products of incomplete combustion and harmful to environment:

  • NOx

  • C

  • HxCy

  • CO


Space center

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

SPACE CENTER

  • Multidisciplinary Flight Dynamics and Controls Laboratory part of NASA Research Center

  • Housed in basement of C wing in Engineering Bldg.

  • 2005-2006: Simulation of combustion process & building of chamber began

  • 2007: Building of combustion chamber finalized & testing initiated

  • 2008-2009: Optimization of Jet Engine Combustion Chamber


Combustor design

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Combustor Design

Stepper Motors

Combustor Flange

Ball Screw Kit

Combustor, Flange & Interior Window Frame Welded Assembly

Interior Window Frame

Rods & Ball Bearings

Exterior Window Frames

Swagelok Needle

Valve

Digital Flow Meter


Control valve

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Control Valve

  • Flow rate control of different fuels

    • Kerosene

    • Bio-Diesel

    • Ethanol

    • Methanol

    • Octane

  • Needle valve and digital fuel flow meter setup

Fuel

Needle Valve

Digital Flow Meter


Volumetric flow rates

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Volumetric Flow Rates


Purpose of window

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Purpose of Window

  • View shape and color of flame

    • Based on different color we can tell how well fuel combusts

      • Blue flame

      • Orange flame

  • Fuel atomization: How well fuel turns into fine mist

    • Fine spray helps combustion

    • Too fine spray causes increased particles – soot

  • Measure particle velocity

  • Measure flame temperature of different fuels as they combust

  • Safety


Interior window frame details

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Interior Window Frame Details

2.5 x 5 inch viewing area

Weld Stainless Steel 304L Frame to Stainless Steel 304L Chamber Can

Weld Stainless Steel 304L Frame to Stainless Steel 304L Chamber Can


Exterior window frame detail

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Exterior frame lip secures sapphire window to chamber

Exterior Window Frame Detail


Nasa grant urc ncc nnx08ba44a

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Velocity Profile of Final Window Design Combustion Flame Swirl

Modeled Boundary Conditions

Equivalence = 1

Swirl Number = 20

Mass Flow Inlet = 85 lbs/sec

Interfering Window

Non - Interfering Window

Velocity Profile created in Solidworks


Nasa grant urc ncc nnx08ba44a

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Window Material Selectionand Properties

http://www.pegasus-glass.com

http://www.rayotek.com/


Combustion chamber thermal expansion

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Combustion Chamber Thermal Expansion

∆L = ∆L = Change in length

Lo = Initial length

αL = Coefficient of linear thermal expansion

∆T = Change in temperature

Change in length

Lo = Initial length

αL = Coefficient of linear thermal expansion

∆T = Change in temperature


Gas analyzer

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Gas Analyzer

  • Testo 350-S/ -XL Flue Gas Analyzer

  • Measures:

    - Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

    - Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    - Nitrogen Oxide (NO2)

    - Nitric Oxide (NO)

  • Temperature:

    -units: C / F

  • Velocity:

    -m/s & ft/min


Model based control for combustion acoustics

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Model-based Control for Combustion Acoustics

Model

Set Up

Results

Troubleshooting

Conferences


Quantify the influence of vorticity on pressure sound emissions temperature and efficiency

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Physical Model

Quantify the Influence of Vorticity on Pressure, Sound, Emissions, Temperature, and Efficiency

  • Physical Model

45°


Equipment for acoustic testing

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Equipment for Acoustic Testing

  • CAD M9 Professional Microphone

    • Conductor Cable

    • MV200 Analog Power Supply

    • Line Cord

    • Suspension Chock Mount

  • Lexicon Alpha Desktop Recording Studio – Lexalpha V

    • USB Powered

    • Cubase LE Software

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A


Equipment for measuring acoustic response

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Equipment for Measuring Acoustic Response

  • Piezoelectric Accelerometer – Type 4384 (Brüel & Kjaer)

    • Testing and analysis

    • High sensitivity

    • High-frequency measurement

    • Mounted on object to be tested by means of threaded steel stud

  • Charge Amplifier – Type 2635 (Brüel & Kjaer)

    • For general measurement

    • Powered from internal batteries or DC power supply

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A


Equipment for temperature measurements

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Equipment for Temperature Measurements

  • Data Logger Thermometer – HH309A (Ω Omega)

    • Four input thermometer & data logger

    • Windows-based software for display & saving of data

    • Temperature range: -200°C to 1370°C


Swirl number 20

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Cubase Microphone LE 4 Data

Swirl Number 100

Swirl Number 20

Swirl Number 200


Emissions study

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Emissions Study

Intensive testing

More structured approach to measuring emissions


Future physical modifications

Future Physical Modifications

Incorporate Emissions Probe Stand once manufacturing is complete

Install sapphire windows upon their arrival

Install digital flow meter

Calibrate needle valve

Place high temperature gasket between diffuser and combustor

Test complete set up

Start research and work on laser set up to collect data through chamber viewing windows

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A


References

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

References

Blake, W. K. “Mechanics of Flow-Induced Sound and Vibration”

Blevins, R. “Flow-Induced Vibrations”

Turns. H. “An Introduction to Combustion”

Fox, R. & A. T. McDonald. “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics”

Borman, G. L. & K. W. Ragland, “Combustion Engineering

Anderson, J. D., “Compressible Flow”

Heiser, W. H. & D. T. Pratt, “Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion”

AIAA, “Scramjet Propulsion”

Incropera, F. P. & DeWitt, D. P., “Introduction to Heat Transfer”


Project timeline

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Project Timeline


Project timeline1

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Project Timeline


Acknowledgements

NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A

Acknowledgements

  • Space Center Students:

  • Shing Chi Chan

  • Nhan Doan

  • Sara Esparza

  • Sunny Karnani

  • Long Ly

  • Cesar Olmedo

  • Michael Tran


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