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C3 Atoms, elements & compounds. 3.5: Molecules & Covalent bonds 3.6: Giant Structures Req -giant structure. 3.5: Learning Objectives. State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding.

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C3 atoms elements compounds

C3 Atoms, elements & compounds

3.5: Molecules & Covalent bonds

3.6: Giant Structures

Req-giant structure


3 5 learning objectives

3.5: Learning Objectives

  • State that non-metallic elements form non-ionic compounds using a different type of bonding called covalent bonding.

  • Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic & covalent compounds. (H/W)


3 5 learning objectives1

3.5: Learning Objectives

  • Supplement:

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by Cl2, H2O, CH4, HCl.

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the multiple bonding in N2, C2H4 & CO2


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Cl

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


C3 atoms elements compounds

(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)

N2, C2H4

N2, C2H4

N2 C2H4


Chemical formula of elements

Atom

Molecule

Formula

O

O

O

N

N

N

H

H

H

P

P

P

P

P

Chemical formula of elements

  • Each element has a symbol.

  • Some elements exist as particular numbers of atoms bonded together.

  • This fact can be represented in a formula with a number which shows how many atoms.

O2

N2

H2

P4


The formula of molecular compounds

Name

Formula

Methane

H

H

C

H

H

Carbon dioxide

O

O

C

Water

H

O

H

The formula of molecular compounds

  • Molecular compounds have formulae that show the type and number of atoms that they are made up from.

CH4

CO2

H2O


1 octane

1. Octane

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


2 propane

2. Propane

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


3 ethanoic acid

3. Ethanoic acid

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 hydrogen peroxide

4. Hydrogen peroxide

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 ethene

4. Ethene

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


5 methanol

5. Methanol

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


C3 atoms elements compounds

4.1


20 08 12 bonding answer the questions below

20.08.12 Bonding Answer the questions below

  • Write down the formula that contains 4 elements.

  • Write down the formula that is made up of 5 atoms.

  • Write down the formula that is a hydrocarbon.

  • Write down the formula that is made up of two elements and two atoms in total


Basic ideas match up

Basic ideas- match up


3 ethanoic acid1

3. Ethanoic acid

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 hydrogen peroxide1

4. Hydrogen peroxide

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


4 ethene1

4. Ethene

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


5 methanol1

5. Methanol

  • The molecular formula of this compound:

  • The number of different elements present in this compound:

  • Names of each element and how many atoms of each element:


C3 covalent bonding

C3: Covalent bonding

Non-metals combine together by sharing electrons and this is called covalent bonding


How is hcl bonded

How is HCl bonded?

  • HCl


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride1

Cl

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


Covalent compounds

Covalent compounds

  • Covalent compounds are formed when non-metal atoms react together.

  • As these atoms come near their outer electrons are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms and become shared by the atoms.

  • The shared electrons count towards the shells of both atoms and therefore help fill up incomplete electron shells. (Duplet 2 ) (Octet 8)


Covalent bonds

-

Figure 1

Figure 2

F

F

X

X

F

F

Covalent bonds

  • Covalent compounds are held together by this sharing of electrons.

  • A pair of electrons shared in this way is known as a covalent bond.

  • It is sometimes represented in full bonding diagrams (see figure 1). Often these bonds are just shown as a pair of electrons (xx) or even just a line (see figure 2).


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride2

Cl

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


C3 atoms elements compounds

(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


3 5 learning objectives2

3.5: Learning Objectives

  • Supplement:

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the sharing of electron pairs to form single covalent bonds in simple molecules, exemplified by Cl2, H2O, CH4, HCl.

  • Draw dot-and-cross diagrams to represent the multiple bonding in N2, C2H4 & CO2


C3 atoms elements compounds

  • HCl.

  • Cl2

  • H2O,

  • CH4

  • N2

  • C2H4

  • CO2


Ionic covalent bonding

Ionic & covalent bonding

  • When an atom of a metal joins with an atom of a non-metal an ionic bond is formed.

  • When 2 non-metals combine they share electrons to form a covalent bond. The atoms join to form a molecule.


Covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

  • This involves electrons being shared

  • Full outer shells are formed.

  • Resulting in a stable structure

  • Covalent bonds are made between atoms of non-metals

  • Examples of molecules with covalent bonds include: Water and Carbon dioxide


Basic ideas

Basic ideas

  • Elements are chemically joined to make …………..

  • The connection between the atoms in a compound is called a …………….. bond

  • There are two types of this: ……………… bonding and ...………… bonding

  • The type of chemical bonding between metals and non-metals is ……………. and the type of chemical bonding between non-metals is …………………

  • A substance that is made of two or more atoms bonded together is called a m……………..


Basic ideas1

Basic ideas

  • Elements are chemically joined to make compound

  • The connection between the atoms in a compound is called a chemical bond

  • There are two types of this: covalent bonding and ionic bonding

  • The type of chemical bonding between metals and non-metals is ionic and the type of chemical bonding between non-metals is covalent

  • A substance that is made of two or more atoms bonded together is called a molecule


C3 covalent bonding1

C3: Covalent bonding

Non-metals combine together by sharing electrons and this is called covalent bonding


Covalent compounds1

Covalent compounds

  • Covalent compounds are formed when non-metal atoms react together.

  • As these atoms come near their outer electrons are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms and become shared by the atoms.

  • The shared electrons count towards the shells of both atoms and therefore help fill up incomplete electron shells. (Duplet 2 ) (Octet 8)


Covalent bonds1

-

Figure 1

Figure 2

F

F

X

X

F

F

Covalent bonds

  • Covalent compounds are held together by this sharing of electrons.

  • A pair of electrons shared in this way is known as a covalent bond.

  • It is sometimes represented in full bonding diagrams (see figure 1). Often these bonds are just shown as a pair of electrons (xx) or even just a line (see figure 2).


Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride3

Cl

Cl

H

(1)

(2,8,7)

H

(2)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride

Both hydrogen (1) and chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-Cl


C3 atoms elements compounds

(H) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the following molecules and check your answers with the following slides (right click to zoom)


Covalent bonding in hydrogen h 2

H

H

(1)

(1)

H

(2)

Covalent bonding in hydrogen – H2

Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron to attain a full outer shell.

H-H

H

(2)


Covalent bonding in chlorine cl 2

Cl

Cl

Cl

(2,8,7)

(2,8,7)

Cl

(2,8,8)

(2,8,8)

Covalent bonding in chlorine Cl2

Chlorine (2.8.7) needs 1 more electron to attain a full electron shell.

Cl-Cl


C3 atoms elements compounds

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

4

  • How many does carbon (2,4) need?

4

  • How many hydrogens per 1 carbon?

  • Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron.

  • Draw bonding diagrams for methane – CH4.


Covalent bonding in carbon dioxide co 2

Covalent bonding in Carbon dioxide – CO2

Carbon needs 4 more electrons but oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more. Therefore, we need 2 oxygen's.

O

C

O

4 electrons: Double covalent bond

4 electrons: Double covalent bond

Represented as =

O

C

O


Covalent bonding in water h 2 o

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

Covalent bonding in water – H2O

Hydrogen (1) needs 1 more electron but oxygen (2.6) needs 2 more. Therefore, we need 2 hydrogen's.


Covalent bonding multiple bonds

Cl-Cl

O=O

N=N

Double bond

Triple bond

Single bond

Covalent bonding - multiple bonds

  • Mostly electrons are shared as pairs.

  • There are some compounds where they are shared in fours or even sixes.

  • This gives rise to single, double and triple covalent bonds.

  • Again, each pair of electrons is often represented by a single line when doing simple diagrams of molecules.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Task

  • Can you draw a dot and cross diagram for Oxygen

  • Nitrogen

  • Ethene C2H4

  • HCl


Covalent bonding in oxygen

O

O

O

O

Covalent bonding in oxygen

Oxygen (2.8.6) needs 2 more electrons to attain a full electron shell.

O=O

4 electrons


C3 atoms elements compounds

N=N

N

N

N

N

Nitrogen

(Higher) Nitrogen (2.8.5) needs 3 more electrons to attain a full electron shell and forms a triple bond.

Draw a bonding diagram of nitrogen.

6 electrons


Supplement

Supplement

  • Ensure you can draw structures for the following:

  • Remember the exam is not restricted to using only these! So practice and ensure you understand this!

  • Chlorine

  • Water

  • Methane

  • Hydrogen Chloride

  • Nitrogen

  • Ethene

  • Carbon Dioxide


Covalent bonding animation

Covalent bonding animation

  • sc_ocr_c3c2


C3 atoms elements compounds

Draw ‘dot and cross’ type bonding diagrams for each of the following:

H

H

F

H

O

C

O

C

C

H

H

S

H

H

H

H

  • Hydrogen fluoride (HF)

  • Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

  • Ethane (C2H6 and the carbons are joined by a single covalent bond)

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2 and the carbon oxygen bonds are double bonds)


3 6 giant structures learning objectives

3.6 GIANT STRUCTURESLearning objectives

  • Supplement only:

  • Describe the giant covalent structures of graphite & diamond.

  • Relate their structures to the use of graphite as a lubricant and of diamond in cutting.

  • Describe the structure of Silicon (IV) Oxide (Silicon dioxide)


Research task

Research Task

  • Research the following:

  • Structures of Diamond, Graphite & Silicon (IV) Oxide (Silicon Dioxide).

  • Relate the structure to the use of Diamond & Graphite.


Small covalent structures

a simple molecular

structure

covalent bonds

Small covalent structures

  • Sometimes just a few atoms join together in this way.

  • This produces small covalent molecules – often known as simple molecular structures.


Giant covalent structures

a giant lattice

covalent bonds

Giant covalent structures

  • Sometimes millions of atoms are joined together by covalent bonds.

  • This produces a rigid 3-D network called a giant lattice.


Giant covalent structures diamond

Diamond

strong

covalent

bonds

carbon atoms

Giant covalent structures: diamond

  • One form of carbon is diamond.

  • Each diamond consists of millions of carbon atoms bonded into a single giant structure.

  • It is very hard.


Giant covalent structures graphite

strong

covalent

bonds

Graphite

weak

attraction

carbon atoms

Giant covalent structures: graphite

  • A more common form of carbon is graphite.

  • Millions of carbon atoms are bonded into a giant structure but within this structure the layers are only weakly joined.


Giant covalent structures carbon footballs

Giant covalent structures: carbon footballs!

  • During the last 20 years new forms of carbon have been discovered some of which have “closed cage” arrangements of the atoms.

  • These are large but are not really giant molecules.

  • One of them contains 60 carbon atoms and bears remarkable similarities to a football!


Giant covalent structures sand

silicon atoms

oxygen atoms

Giant covalent structures: sand

  • Sand is an impure form of silicon dioxide.

  • Although it is a compound, it has a giant covalent structure with certain similarities to diamond.


Bonding and physical properties

BONDING AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Metallic bonding

= positively charged

metal ion

Metallic bonding

  • Metal atoms form a giant lattice similar to ionic compounds.

  • The outermost electrons on each metal are free to move throughout the structure and form a “sea of electrons”.

  • Having released electrons into this “sea” the metal atoms are left with a + charge.

Metallic bonding is the attraction of + metal ions for the “sea of electrons.”


Bonding and physical properties1

Bonding and physical properties

The type of structure that substances have has a huge effect upon physical properties.

These are things such as:

  • Density

  • Conductivity

  • Malleability/ brittleness

  • Melting point

The next few slides illustrate just a few of the general patterns.


Bonding physical properties

Bonding & physical properties


Simple covalent compounds

Simple covalent compounds

Carbon dioxide and water are simple covalent molecules


Carbon dioxide does not conduct electricity

Carbon dioxide does not conduct electricity

Covalent bonds

C

O

O

Unlike ions, Carbon dioxide does not have a charge or free electrons and so does not conduct electricity


Water does not conduct electricity

Water does not conduct electricity

Unlike ions, Water does not have a charge or free electrons and so does not conduct electricity


Intermolecular forces in co 2 and h 2 o

Intermolecular forces in CO2 and H2O

  • Carbon dioxide and water have weak intermolecular forces between molecules.

  • Understanding this can help explain the properties of CO2 and H2O


Intermolecular forces

Intermolecular Forces

  • First we must learn about intermolecular forces:

  • Intermolecular forces are forces which act between whole molecules

  • Look at the following slides


Intermolecular forces between water molecules

Intermolecular forces between Water molecules


Intermolecular forces between hydrocarbon molecules

Intermolecular forces between hydrocarbon molecules


C3 atoms elements compounds

CO2

CO2

CO2

Carbon dioxide is a molecule:

  • It has LOW MELTING &….

  • BOILING POINT. (that’s why it’s a gas)

  • This is because of the WEAK forces of attraction BETWEEN the molecules – WEAK INTERMOLECULAR BONDS


C3 atoms elements compounds

Carbon dioxide – CO2 – is a GAS at room temperature, with a low M.P, this is due to weak intermolecular bonds.

Water – H2O – is a LIQUID at room temperature, with a low M.P, this is due to weak intermolecular bonds, BUT stronger than CO2.

CO2

CO2

CO2

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

H2O


Relating the properties of carbon dioxide and water to their structure

Relating the properties of carbon dioxide and water to their structure

  • The weak intermolecular forces in CO2 and H2O mean these simple molecules have low melting points

  • There are no free electrons so both do not conduct electricity.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

In giant structures all the atoms are tightly bonded together. Usually they are high melting-point solids.

+

+

-

-

Small molecules tend to be gas, liquid solids with low melting points.

-

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

+

-

weak forces between molecules

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Generally substances with giant structures have high melting points and boiling points.

  • Small molecules have melting points and boiling points that increase as the size of the molecule increases.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Ionic compounds are very brittle.

  • Opposite charges attract, so neighbouring ions are pulled together.

  • When something hits the substance a layer of ions will be pushed so that they are next to ions with the same charge.

    Attraction becomes:

repulsion!

Blow


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

  • Metals are not brittle.

  • The metal atoms are the same and exist in simple structures.

  • If something hits the substance, it simply moves to the next layer along.

Blow


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

electrons fixed in covalent bonds

H

H

C

C

H

H

electrons free to move

H

H

  • Covalent substances do not conduct electricity.

  • This is because in covalent substances the outer electrons are fixed (localised) between specific atoms.

  • Metals conduct electricity.

  • In metals the electrons can, given a potential, move anywhere throughout the structure.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

Molten – mobile Does conduct

Solid – not free to move Doesn’t conduct

-

+

-

  • Ionic substances do not conduct electricity as solids.

  • When molten or dissolved they will conduct (and also undergo electrolysis).

  • This is because the electricity is carried through the solution by the ions which are free to move when the ionic compound is molten or in solution.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Bonding and physical properties

Giant structures generally don’t dissolve easily.

+

+

-

-

Small molecules usually dissolve in a range of solvents. We just separate one molecule from another.

-

-

+

+

strong bonds between the atoms/ions

+

+

-

-

-

+

-

weak forces between molecules

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

-

  • Generally substances with giant structures do not dissolve easily (although many ionic compounds dissolve in water for a special reason).

  • Again this is because in giant structures separating the particles involves breaking chemical bonds.


Bonding physical properties1

Bonding & physical properties


H find and explain

(H) Find and explain …

  • Find these physical properties of water and carbon dioxide.

    • Melting points

    • Electrical conductivity (do they conduct electricity?)

  • Explain why some of the above have low melting points and others high? Use these ideas in your answer

    • Intermolecular forces

    • Freely moving electrons or ions

Support sheet for foundation students

Information sheet for higher students


Recap activites

Recap activites


C3 atoms elements compounds

Activity

Soluble in petrol

Melting Point

Conduct as solid

Conduct when molten

Small or giant?

Metal

Ionic

Small Mol

Giant Mol

Substance

Copy the Table and fill in the blank columns.

Giant

Metal

A

No

High

Yes

Yes

Small

Small Mol

B

Yes

Low

No

No

C

No

High

No

No

Giant Mol

Giant

D

No

High

No

Yes

Giant

Ionic

E

No

Low

Yes

Yes

Giant

Metal

Substance E is peculiar:

Can you suggest an actual substance that E could be?

Can you explain the low melting point?


C3 atoms elements compounds

What type of bonding will the substances have?

Metallic

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

Ionic

Covalent


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of the following will have covalent bonding?

  • Sodium chloride

  • Iron

  • Bronze

  • Nitrogen dioxide


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of the following will have metallic bonding?

  • Copper chloride

  • Graphite

  • Bronze

  • Phosphorus chloride


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which is a true statement about covalent bonds?

  • Usually formed between metals and non- metals

  • Involve transfer of electrons between atoms.

  • Form full electron shells by sharing of electrons.

  • Always involve 2 electrons per atom.


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of the following exists as a giant molecular structure?

  • Water

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Sodium chloride

  • Diamond


C3 atoms elements compounds

What will be the formula of the compound formed by hydrogen and sulphur?

  • HS

  • H2S

  • HS2

  • H2S2

1

H

1

32

S

16

2.8.6

1


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of these will conduct as both solid and liquid?

  • metal

  • ionic

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of these will conduct when liquid but not when solid?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of these will dissolve in solvents like petrol?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


C3 atoms elements compounds

Which of these will not conduct at all and is hard to melt?

  • small molecules

  • giant molecules

  • metal

  • ionic


The periodic table

Noble gases

Alkali metals

Halogens

These elements are metals

This line divides metals from non-metals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table


Electronic structure

Electronic Structure


C3 atoms elements compounds

Arrangement of Electrons

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

2

3

Click on action buttons to reveal how electron configuration is built-up.

The transition metals

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Electrons in Period 3

Elements in the third period have complete first and second shells. The third shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Electrons in Period 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

1

2

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Electrons in Period 2

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

Elements in the second period contain 2 electrons in the first shell (complete) and the second shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

This atom is

special it has a complete outer shell

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Electrons in Period 3

Elements in the third period have complete first and second shells. The third shell is completed one electron at a time as you cross the period from left to right.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3

2,8,4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 1 Elements

1

Group 1 elements have 1 electron in the outermost shell which they lose in chemical reactions.

The outer electron is further from the nucleus and so more easily lost as you go down the group.

This is why reactivity increases going downwards

1

1

2

2,1

3

Skip this

2,8,1


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 2 Elements

In chemical reactions metals tend to lose their outer shell electrons to form positive ions.

So, these elements all form ions with a 2+ charge.

The further the outer shell is from the nucleus the more easily electrons are lost.

CATIONS-form after loss of electron

Anions-gain of electrons

2

2,2

2,8,2

Skip this


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 3 Elements

3

Metals lose their outer electrons to form ions. The charge on the ion produced by Group 3 metals will be +3.

2,3

Skip this

2,8,3


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 4 Elements

4

The elements at the top of Group 4 are non-metals. They bond covalently, i.e. by sharing electrons with another atom.

2,4

Skip this

2,8,4


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 5 Elements

5

The number of electrons in the outermost shell is the same as the group number.

They need 3 more electrons to achieve a full electron shell.

2,5

Skip this

2,8,5


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 6 Elements

The atoms in Group 6 form negative ions (2-) by the addition of two extra electrons. This completes their outer most shell.

6

2,6

Skip this

2,8,6


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 7 Elements

Group 7 elements form 1- ions by the addition of 1 extra electron.

They are most reactive at the top of the group because incoming electrons are pulled into shells that are closer to the nucleus.

7

2,7

Skip this

2,8,7


C3 atoms elements compounds

Group 0 Elements

8

The elements in Group 8 (or 0) have complete outer shells.

They are very unreactive and are called NOBLE (or inert) GASES.

2

2,8

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2,8,8


Periodic table

Vertical columns are called GROUPS

Mendeleev

Periodic table

Hello. My name’s Dimitri Mendeleev. In the 19th century I arranged all the known elements into a pattern according to their properties. This pattern is called “The Periodic Table”

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS


Columns of elements

Group number

1

2

0

3

5

6

7

4

transition elements

Columns of elements

What are columns of elements called?

Groups

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?


Rows of elements

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Rows of elements

What are rows of elements called?

Periods

Period number

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

?

?

?


Tasks

Tasks

  • Starter after finishing both bonding imp.doc

  • Structure and bonding information sheet.doc

  • Bonding_card_sort or info sheet.doc


Plenary

Plenary

  • C3c_self assess quiz.doc

  • C3c_self assess answers.doc

  • .


Don t forget your homework

Don’t forget your homework!

  • Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic & covalent compounds. (H/W)


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