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Volcanoes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Volcanoes. Ms. scerra. Word Origin. Romans believed in Vulcan, their god of fire. They thought that Vulcan worked at a hot forge, striking sparks as he made swords and armor for the other gods. Hawaiians told legends of the wanderings of Pele, their goddess of fire.

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Ms. scerra

Word Origin

  • Romans believed in Vulcan, their god of fire.

    • They thought that Vulcan worked at a hot forge, striking sparks as he made swords and armor for the other gods.

  • Hawaiians told legends of the wanderings of Pele, their goddess of fire.

    • Pele was chased from her homes by her sister Namaka, goddess of the sea. Pele moved constantly from one Hawaiian island to another, until she settled in the mountain Kilauea.

    • Kilauea is on the big island of Hawaii and is still active. The islanders believe it is the god Pele.

Volcanic definitions

  • Magma – melted or molten rock beneath the surface of the earth.

  • Lava – when magma pours forth on the surface of the earth.

  • Volcanic eruption – when magma pushes its way up through cracks, holes, or tubes.

A volcano can be 2 things:

  • A hole in the ground that lava comes through.

  • A hill or mountain formed by lava.

    • Mount Rainier – in the state of Washington is a volcano. Has not erupted since 1882.

    • Mount St. Helens – On March 27, 1980 it started to spout ashes and steam and continued to bring earthquakes each day.

      • Until Mid-May the mountain began to swell up and crack.

Sunday, May 18 at 8:32am the mountain erupted with an incredible force!!!

  • The energy released in the eruption was equal to ten million tons of dynamite!!

    • 60 people lost their lives as hot gases, rocks, and ashes covered an area of 230 square miles.

    • Hundreds of houses and cabins were destroyed.

    • Miles of highways, roads, and railways were damaged.

    • Entire forests were blown down like rows of matchsticks.

Iceland is a volcanic island in the north atlantic

  • It was formed along the mid-Atlanic Ridge because as magma rose up, it built up and formed an island.

  • Iceland has over 30 active volcanoes.

  • The most recent to erupt in 2010, causing flight cancellations for 6 days from the ash.

Most volcanoes and earthquakes are along the edges of the large pacific plate “The Ring of Fire”

  • Few of the volcanoes are on the edge of the plate.

  • The only island state of the US is located in the middle of the plate, Hawaii is made from a hot spot.

Hot spots

  • Develop over a mantle plume and as the plates move over and magma builds up, volcanic islands are created.

  • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0904/es0904page01.cfm

Hawaian eruptions are gentle and create 2 kinds of flows

AA – thick, slow moving that hardens into rough tangle of sharp rocks.

Pahoehoe – thin, hot quick-moving lava that forms smooth, billowy surface.

Shield Volcanoes

  • Shaped like an ancient warrior’s shield. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VfsKoH-ScA

  • Volcanoes with broad, gentle slopes and built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava.

  • The largest volcanoes on Earth!

    Mauna Loa


Cinder cone volcanoes

  • The simplest type of volcano.

  • They erupt explosively, blowing out burning ashes and cinders. The ashes and cinders build up to form the cone shape.

  • Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet or so above their surroundings.

  • Ex: Paracutin in Mexico and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aS_xl3nu_mY

Composite Volcanoes

  • Symmetrical cones of large dimension built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs.

  • They may rise as much as 8,000 feet above their bases.

  • Some of the most conspicuous and beautiful mountains in the world

  • Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Shasta in California, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-H_HZVY1tT4&list=TLqcxkD47YpzhA6te8fFiSLMSazYpRW0Np

Really cool video!!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DceHEBGVfj4

  • Try to list all 10

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4aYQixhdWY4

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