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THE WETLANDS OF CANADA. Overview of Wetlands in the North. Wetlands are habitats that are equally comprised of water and land. Due to this, the mixture of species in a wetland are unique and are not seen in any other type of habitat.

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the wetlands of canada

THE WETLANDS OF CANADA

Overview of Wetlands in the North

KathleneNastopoulos

what is a wetland

Wetlands are habitats that are equally comprised of water and land.

  • Due to this, the mixture of species in a wetland are unique and are not seen in any other type of habitat.
  • A wetland is defined by the types of soil found there, known as “hydric soils”.
    • Hydric soils are specific to the area in which they occur, therefore many types of wetlands exist (ex. coastal swamps)
  • Wetlands are areas of rapid growth for plant life despite their nutrient deficient soul
WHAT IS A WETLAND?

KathleneNastopoulos

how a wetland is formed

Wetlands are low-lying valleys located between higher and lower ground.

  • Water from many sources collects in the low-lying area.
  • Mosses located at the bottom of the wetland retain large amounts of water.
HOW A WETLAND IS FORMED

Kathlene Nastopoulos

wetland plants
Wetland Plants

Moss-Lichen, Trees and Grasses

Kathlene Nastopoulos

mosses and lichen

Mosses and Lichen can grow on almost any surface.

    • They need very little nutrient content to survive.
    • These plants are called bryophytes
  • They hold great amounts of water due to their non-vascular structure.
  • Some examples are :
    • Sphagnum angustifolium
    • S. fuscum,
    • S. nemoreum
    • S. fallax
MOSSES AND LICHEN

Kathlene Nastopoulos

trees

Trees in wetlands adapt by growing their roots differently

    • The roots are raised and are called buttresses.
  • Common trees in Canadian wetlands include:
    • Red Maple
    • Silver Maple
    • Ash
    • Elm
    • Eastern White Cedar
TREES

Kathlene Nastopoulos

grasses

There are hundreds of types of tall and short grasses that are found in the wetlands of Canada.

  • The species of grasses are tolerant to flooding and over exposure to moisture.
  • Common types of grasses are:
    • Broom Sedge
    • Bluestem Sedge
    • Horsetail grass
    • Canadian rye
    • Wild Sea Oats
    • Clubhead Cutgrass
GRASSES

Kathlene Nastopoulos

wetland animals
Wetland animals

Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Birds

Kathlene Nastopoulos

mammals

Most mammals that live in the wetlands are small and belong to the rodent family.

  • These animals are well suited to this environment:
    • They consume grasses, seeds, leaves, flowers, certain fungi and have been known to occasionally eat snails and insects.
    • All of these foods are commonly located in wetland habitats.

Meadow Vole

MAMMALS

Kathlene Nastopoulos

reptiles

These snakes are carnivorous, and non-toxic to humans.

  • Their diet consists of the small rodents that also live in the wetlands.
  • Other retiles found in the wetlands include:
    • Gopher Snake
    • Painted Turtle

Common Terrestrial Garter Snake

REPTILES

Kathlene Nastopoulos

amphibians

Amphibians are animals that are equally comfortable on land and in water.

  • Their skin must stay moist for them to survive.
  • Their diet consists of mainly insects.
  • Other amphibians found in Canadian wetlands are:
    • Long-toed Salamander
    • Spotted Frog
    • Tiger Salamander

Boreal Chorus Frog

AMPHIBIANS

Kathlene Nastopoulos

birds

There are hundreds of species of birds that live in wetland habitats in Canada.

  • Their diet consists of insects and small amphibians.
  • Bird species found in wetlands include:
    • Sora
    • Northern Harrier
    • American Avocet
    • Peregrine Falcon

Yellow-headed Blackbird

BIRDS

Kathlene Nastopoulos

canada s wetland distribution
CANADA’S WETLANDDISTRIBUTION

Kathlene Nastopoulos

canada s wetland make up
CANADA’S WETLAND MAKE-UP

KathleneNastopoulos

wetland conservation

There are many conservation societies, both government run and privately funded, across Canada.

  • Their aim is to save the quickly disappearing wetland habitats.
  • These ecosystems are vital to Canada’s wildlife population.

Millions of dollars are spent and donated in efforts to save these areas.

Some societies that are dedicated to conservation in Canada are:

  • The North American Wetlands Conservation Council
  • Ducks Unlimited Conservation
  • Environment Canada
WETLAND CONSERVATION

Kathlene Nastopoulos

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