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UAEM Universities Allied for Essential Medicines Access Metrics Index. Louis Fazen Yale University. Philadelphia Consensus Statement. Promote equal access to research. Promote research and development for neglected diseases. Measure research success according to impact on human welfare.

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Louis fazen yale university

UAEMUniversities Allied for Essential Medicines

Access Metrics Index

Louis Fazen

Yale University


Philadelphia consensus statement

Philadelphia Consensus Statement

  • Promote equal access to research.

  • Promote research and development for neglected diseases.

  • Measure research success according to impact on human welfare.

    • Access Metrics Initiative (AMI)


Global access licensing framework

Global Access Licensing Framework

  • Access to medicines and health-related technologies for all is the primary purpose of technology transfer of health-related innovations.

  • Technology transfer should protect access to the final end product needed by patients

  • Generic provision is the best way to ensure access to medicines in resource-limited countries

  • Proactive licensing provisions are essential to ensure that follow-on patents and data exclusivity cannot be used to block generic production.

  • University licensing should be systematic in its approach, sufficiently transparent to verify its effectiveness, and based on explicit metrics that measure the success of technology transfer by its impact on access and continued innovation.


Statement of principles and strategies for the equitable dissemination of medical technologies

Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies

6. Develop and apply meaningful metrics to evaluate the success of our efforts

7. Share with one another our collective experiences, educate others, and revisit these principles on a biennial basis

http://www.autm.net/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Global_Health&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3848


Statement of principles and strategies for the equitable dissemination of medical technologies1

Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies

Signed by:

  • Association of University Technology Managers

  • Boston University

  • Brown University

  • Harvard University

  • Oregon Health & Science University

  • University of Pennsylvania

  • Yale University

  • NIH OTT


Louis fazen yale university

Metrics?


Outline

Outline

  • Access Metrics Initiative Objectives

    • Strategic Alignment: Policy vs. Practice

    • Process Outputs vs. Health Outcomes

  • Access Metrics Initiative Current Work

    • TTO Director Survey on TTO Activities

      • Prospective Survey

      • Retrospective Pilot Survey

    • UAEM Student Survey on University Policy

      http://www.autm.net/Nine_Points_to_Consider.htm


Outline1

Outline

  • Access Metrics Initiative Objectives

    • Strategic Alignment: Policy vs. Practice

    • Process Outputs vs. Health Outcomes

  • Access Metrics Initiative Current Work

    • TTO Director Survey on TTO Activities

      • Prospective Survey

      • Retrospective Survey

    • UAEM Student Survey on University Policy

      http://www.autm.net/Nine_Points_to_Consider.htm


Ami objectives

AMI Objectives

  • Strategic Alignment

  • Feasible to Collect

  • Valid Measurements of TTO Activity

  • Generalizeable to other TTOs

  • Employee Communication and Education

  • University and Public Awareness

  • Ensure Long-term Growth of University


Ami objectives1

AMI Objectives

  • Strategic Alignment

  • Feasible to Collect

  • Valid Measurements of TTO Activity

  • Generalizeable to other TTOs

  • Employee Communication and Education

  • University and Public Awareness

  • Ensuring Long-term Growth


Strategic alignment

Strategic Alignment

Nine Points to Consider

  • Retain the right to practice, use, and transfer university technologies

  • Grant the minimal rights necessary for development in exclusive licenses

  • Minimize rights to improvement and follow-on patents

  • Manage responsibility for conflicts-of-interest & maintain open communication

  • Promote the widest possible access to research tools

  • Encourage licensee to develop technologies for the benefit of society and if necessary enforce the principles by litigation

  • Consider federal export laws to ensure effective TT for the public interest

  • Require due diligence of licensee to develop and commercialize technologies

  • Consider the needs of marginalized population groups and include provisions to ensure no or low-cost access to adequate quantities of university inventions

    http://www.autm.net/Nine_Points_to_Consider.htm


Strategic alignment1

Strategic Alignment

Institutional Global Access Principles

  • UBC: Principles for Global Access

  • UC Berkeley: Socially Responsible IP Management Program

  • Emory University: Guiding Principles for Ensuring Global Access

  • NIH Research Tools Guidelines

  • NIH Best Practices for Licensing of Genomic Inventions

  • NIH Uniform Biological MTA

  • OECD Guidelines for the Licensing of Genetic Inventions

  • Gates Foundation

  • AUTM Global Health Licensing Language


Strategic alignment2

Strategic Alignment

Academic Articles

  • Ashley J. Stevens and April E. Effort, “Using Academic License Agreements to Promote Global Social Responsibility.” Journal of the Licensing Executives Society (Les Nouvelles) (June 2008).

  • Jill Sorensen and Donald Chambers. “Evaluating academic technology transfer performance by how well access to knowledge is facilitated––defining an access metric.” Journal of Technology Transfer. 2008, vol. 33, issue 5

  • Nelson, L. The Role of University Technology Transfer Operations in Assuring Access to Medicines and Vaccines in Developing Countries. Yale Journal of Health
Policy, Law, and Ethics. III: 2. 9/12/2003

  • Bennett, AB. 2007. Reservation of Rights for Humanitarian Uses. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Brewster, AL, Hansen, SA, and Chapman, AR. 2007. Facilitating Humanitarian Access to Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Innovation. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Eiss R, Hanna KE, and Mahoney RT. 2007. Ensuring Global Access through Effective IP Management: Strategies of Product-Development Partnerships. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Clift C. 2007. Patenting and Licensing Research Tools. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Stevens AJ. 2007. Valuation and Licensing in Global Health. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Hope J. 2007. Open Source Licensing. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Oehler J. 2007. Using Milestones in Healthcare Product Licensing Deals to Ensure Access in Developing Countries. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices

  • Krattiger A and Kowalski SP. 2007. Facilitating Assembly of and Access to Intellectual Property: Focus on Patent Pools and a Review of Other Mechanisms. MIHR Handbook of Best Practices


Statement of principles and strategies for the equitable dissemination of medical technologies2

Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies

  • Develop licensing strategies to promote global access to health-related technologies

  • University IP should not become a barrier to essential health-related technologies

  • Use patents to promote broad access to health-related technologies

  • Preserve future right to negotiate effective global access terms

  • Support the development of new health-related technologies aimed at developing world diseases

    http://www.autm.net/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Global_Health&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3848


Strategic alignment3

Strategic Alignment

Consensus:

“most institutions wish to measure their success by demonstrating their contribution to public benefit”

-AUTM 2007 Survey


Current tech transfer metrics

Current Tech Transfer Metrics:

  • AUTM Annual Licensing Surveys

  • AUTM Better World Project

  • Milken Institute: Mind to Market Report

  • NSF: Science and Engineering Indicators; Academic Research & Development Survey

  • AUCC: Momentum Report

  • Statistics Canada: Commercialization of Intellectual Property in the Higher Education Sector

  • UNICO: UK University Commercialisation Survey

  • Library House: 2008 Metrics for the Evaluation of Knowledge Transfer at Universities

  • HEFCE: Higher Education-Business and Community Interaction Survey.


Autm metrics

AUTM Metrics

AUTM Annual Licensing Surveys

  • Licensing Revenue

  • Invention Disclosures

  • Patent Applications

  • Patents Issued

  • Licenses Executed

  • Startup Companies Formed


Value of licensing revenue

Value of Licensing Revenue


Strategic misalignment

Strategic Misalignment

“If you measure success in terms of social impact or awareness and you count things such as gifts, research collaborations, global impact and boost to your reputation, it changes your orientation. If you measure success only by the amount of royalties and fees you bring in, then your licensing practices will reflect that.”

-Carol Mimura


Ami objectives2

AMI Objectives

  • Strategic Alignment

  • Feasible to Collect

  • Valid Measurements of TTO Activity

  • Generalizeable to other TTOs

  • Employee Communication and Education

  • University and Public Awareness

  • Ensuring Long-term Growth


Metrics of tech transfer

Metrics of Tech Transfer


Outcome measures

Outcome Measures

  • Cumulative effect on the environment

    • Benefit to the local and global community

    • Stimulation of the economy

    • Number of people with access to technology

    • QALYs increased

    • Reductions in morbidity and mortality

  • Demonstrate value of technology

    • Case studies (eg. Better World Project)

    • SROI Model


Outcome measures challenges

Outcome Measures: Challenges

  • Data collection

    • Resources, availability of data, and time lag

  • Confounding variables

    • Licensee IP portfolio, R&D resources

    • Industry marketing, product competition

    • Political stability and policy

    • Local and global market fluctuations

    • Disease epidemiology, comorbid conditions

    • Local beliefs and customs


Ami as performance measurement

AMI as Performance Measurement

  • Measurement & communication tool for achieving access strategy

  • Defines success as the dissemination of university innovation

  • Improves awareness of access concerns in knowledge and technology transfer

  • Inform prevailing best practices within licensing activities,

  • Provide incentives for excellence in technology transfer

  • Publicize the access policies that universities regularly employ.

  • Enable technology transfer offices to achieve success in accordance with their university mission


Ami principles

AMI Principles

  • Focus on Process Metrics

    • Institutional Policy & TTO licensing strategies

  • Provide Incentive and Accountability

  • Use of multiple sources of university information extending beyond the TTO

  • Publicize the access policies that technology transfer are implementing


Outline2

Outline

  • Access Metrics Initiative Objectives

    • Strategic Alignment: Policy vs. Practice

    • Process Outputs vs. Health Outcomes

  • Access Metrics Initiative Current Work

    • TTO Director Survey on TTO Activities

      • Prospective Survey

      • Retrospective Survey

    • UAEM Student Survey on University Policy

      http://www.autm.net/Nine_Points_to_Consider.htm


Outline3

Outline

  • Access Metrics Initiative Objectives

    • Strategic Alignment: Policy vs. Practice

    • Process Outputs vs. Health Outcomes

  • Access Metrics Initiative Current Work

    • TTO Director Survey on TTO Activities

      • Prospective Survey

      • Retrospective Survey

    • UAEM Student Survey on University Policy

      http://www.autm.net/Nine_Points_to_Consider.htm


Ami prospective survey

AMI Prospective Survey

Institutional Policy

Knowledge Commons

Research Programs

Licensing

Transparency

TTO Administration


Access metrics index

Access Metrics Index

Licensing Policy

  • Term Sheet

  • Definitions

  • Preamble

  • Patenting

  • Restrictions

  • Manufacturing

  • Distribution

  • Pricing

  • Licensing Revenue

  • Reservation of Rights

  • Sub-licenses

  • Licensee Information Disclosure

  • Accountability and Enforcement


Access metrics index1

Access Metrics Index

Licensing Policy

  • Term Sheet

  • Definitions

  • Preamble

  • Patenting

  • Restrictions

  • Manufacturing

  • Distribution

  • Pricing

  • Licensing Revenue

  • Reservation of Rights

  • Sub-licenses

  • Licensee Information Disclosure

  • Accountability and Enforcement


Access metrics index2

Access Metrics Index

Licensing Policy

  • E. Restrictions

  • Field of use limitations

  • Territorial limitations

  • Research Exemption

    • Reservation of right to use the invention in non-profit institutions for research purposes


Access metrics index3

Access Metrics Index

  • Research Exemption

  • Example Licensing Language:

  • “The patent shall not be used to prohibit the use or innovation of the patent compound for the purposes of experiment or research, including commercial research, except for ensuring access to the derivative innovations, data, and technologies.”

  • References:

  • NIH Best Practices of Licensing Genomic Inventions

  • NIH Guidelines on Obtaining and Disseminating Biomedical Research Resources

  • OECD Guidelines for the Licensing of Genetic Inventions


Ami retrospective survey

AMI Retrospective Survey

  • Framework:

    • Follows a more general question format

    • Selective set of questions

    • Filled out by TTO directors or their staff

    • Approximately 15 minutes to fill out

    • To be sent out to collect data from 2009


Louis fazen yale university

TTO Director Survey


Uaem student survey

UAEM Student Survey

  • Objectives:

    • Encourage UAEMers to investigate and learn more about their own institution

    • Collect qualitative information on university policy, and TTO mission / vision statements

    • Categorize university access policies to enable comparison between schools

    • Collect locally available statistics as background and to enable comparisons within TTO survey

    • Provide initial university data in absence of TTO responses

    • Act as standing resource on policy information to inform UAEM activities


Louis fazen yale university

UAEM Student Survey


Ami tto and policy surveys

AMI TTO and Policy Surveys

  • Objectives:

    • Provide basic information on TTO practices in global health licensing in the short term

    • Encourage buy-in from TTOs for ongoing data collection

    • Correlate policy information with executed licenses and actual TT practices

    • Recognize and advertise those strategies that are being successfully implemented

    • May allow UAEM to advocate for improved prospective data collection

    • May allow UAEM to push for incremental local change, e.g. greater transparency


Ami objectives3

AMI Objectives

  • Collaborate with TTOs and academics to develop access-oriented metrics.

  • Conduct a pilot project of access-oriented metrics among voluntary universities

    • TTO Director Survey

    • UAEM Student Survey

  • Publicize access-oriented metrics to increase awareness of licensing for global health

  • Include access-oriented metrics in existing surveys and implement at universities more broadly


Louis fazen yale university

Thank You!

UAEMUniversities Allied for Essential Medicines

Access Metrics Index

[email protected]


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