Principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7
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Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance ( Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity) Chapters 6 and 7. Muscular Strength. Strength the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max).

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Muscular Strength

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Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance (Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity)Chapters 6 and 7

Muscular Strength

  • Strength

    • the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort

  • One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max)

Muscular Endurance

  • Endurance

    • The ability of a muscle to generate a sub-maximalforce,repeatedly, over time.

As You Develop Strength, You Will Develop Some EnduranceAnd Vice Versa

Defining Sets and Repetitions:One set is made up of a number of repetitions

  • Example: One set of 4 repetitions

Identify Your Goal

  • To build primarily strength and power?

  • To build primarily endurance?

  • To gain some strength and some endurance?

  • To develop great hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)?

Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Strength?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Fewer than 8 repetitions in each set

  • Heavy resistance (80 to 90% of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week.

Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group (possibly more)

  • More than 12-15 repetitions in each set

  • Light resistance (50 to 60 % or less of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week (possibly more)

Is Your Goal To Develop Some Strength and Some Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Between 8 and 12 repetitions in each set

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • Moderate resistance (60% of 1RM / perhaps slightly more)

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week

Is Your Goal Hypertrophy?

  • Follow strength training procedures

  • Add some intensive endurance training procedures

  • Example to follow

100 lbs.

3 sets

6 reps (fatigue)

1800 lbs moved

50 lbs.

3 sets

20 reps (fatigue)

3000 lbs moved


How Do I Determine The Appropriate Amount Of Resistance For My Workout?

  • Establish your goal, then choose one of the 3 following methods to determine your resistance:

    • 1RM

    • Trial and error

    • Delorme and Watkins

One Repetition Maximum (1RM)

  • Determine your 1RM

  • Work out at a percentage of your 1RM (percentage is based on your goal)

Trial And Error

  • Consider your goal

  • Determine an amount of resistance you can lift for the identified number of reps so that you fatigue on the last repetition

Progressive Resistance Training: Delorme and Watkins

  • Determine your 10 repetition maximum (10 RM)

  • Complete 3 sets

  • Intensity varies by set

    • 1st set: 50% of 10 RM load

    • 2nd set: 75% of 10 RM load

    • 3rd set: 100% of 10 RM load


  • NEVER hold your breath while exerting force

  • Valsalva effect or valsalva maneuver

  • Exhale as you apply force

  • Inhale as you recover

Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Warm up

  • Adjust equipment

  • Exercise large muscle groups first

    • Legs or large muscles in the upper body

  • Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities

  • Ultimately, you must overload

Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Strengthen your weak side:

    • Working arms and legs independently

  • Isolate the muscle group

  • Protect the back

  • Total body workout

    • Should be done no more than 2 - 3 times per week

    • May alternate days

    • May alternate equipment to save time

How Many Sets and Reps Should I Perform?

  • First Time In The Weight Room?

    • Complete one or two sets on each piece of equipment

    • Over time, progress to 2 sets, then 3 sets

Rest Between Sets

  • Variable

Maintenance and Re-assessment Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Maintenance

    • Two sets, two times per week OR

    • One set of 12 repetitions

      • Fatigue on the last rep

  • Reassess periodically

Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training

  • Muscle Size

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Muscular strength is lost at a rate of 1% per year after the age of 25

    • Use it or lose it

  • Tuft’s University

Benefits of Resistance Training

Prevention of Osteoporosis

  • Weight bearing activity

  • Sufficient calcium

  • Appropriateestrogen levels


  • Improved appearance

  • Improved body composition

  • Hypertrophy: increase muscle size

  • Decreased body fat

  • Minimal increase in flexibility

  • Improved performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills


  • Increased basal metabolic rate

  • Increases metabolism


  • Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life

  • In short, it is the way the body produces energy

Metabolic Rate

  • The rate at which one burns calories

    • The higher, the better

  • Varies based on:

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Amount of muscle mass

Metabolic Rate

  • Low metabolismis primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle

    (no matter the age)

    • loss of muscle mass lowers metabolism

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

  • The number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state

  • The higher the BMR (or calories burned at rest) – the more desirable

    • Develop a calorie burning body!

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) #2

  • As lean body mass increases, BMR increases

    • Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours

    • Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours



170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

900 calories spent in activity & movement

12% BF

BMR=2000 calories



170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

500 calories spent in activity & movement

20% BF

BMR=1600 calories

Work Out Willy VS Couch Potato Pete

Willy vs. Pete

  • Does Couch Potato Pete need to lose weight sense he has 20% body fat and weighs 170 pounds?

Types of Skeletal Muscular Contractions

  • Isometric

  • Concentric

  • Eccentric

Isometric Contractions

  • No appreciable change in length of the muscle( static contraction)

  • Involves no skeletal or joint movement

Concentric Contractions (dynamic)

  • The muscle shortens during contraction

    • Positive contraction

Eccentric Contraction (dynamic)

  • Themuscle lengthensduring contraction

    • Negative contraction

Muscle Soreness

  • Results from structural damage

  • Desirable to have small, microscopic tears

Avoiding Muscle Soreness

  • Stretch

  • Minimize eccentric training

  • Minimize isometric training

  • Begin training using low intensities

  • Progress slowly

Principles of Weight Training / Rules of Weight Training

Isometric Training

  • Increases strength at a given joint angle

  • No joint movement

    • Must work at a variety of joint angles

    • At one time a preferred method of strength training for athletes

  • Used in rehab settings

Isometric Training Precautions

  • Isometric contractions are contraindicated for:

    • hypertensive (valsalva effect)

    • individuals presenting coronary risk

Isotonic Training

  • Characteristics of isotonic training :

    • Constant resistance

    • Variable speed of muscular contraction

Isotonic Training

  • Most common method of strength training

    • Also known asprogressive resistance training

    • Principle of Overload

  • Work through a full ROM

  • Involves use of free weights or machines

Free Weights

  • Use a spotter

  • Increased chance of injury

  • Lack of stability

  • May build strength faster

  • Weight increments are easily changed

Weight Machines

  • Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds

  • The machine controls the line of force

  • Offers stability

  • Fewer injuries

  • No spotter required

Isokinetic Training Principles

  • Computerized - relies on hydraulics

  • Characterized by:

    • variable resistance

    • constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction

Isokinetic Training Principles #2

  • Disadvantage:Cost

Other Strength Training Techniques

  • Circuit Training

  • Plyometrics

  • Calisthenics

Circuit Training

  • Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations

  • Rotate through the circuit 3 times

  • Consists of combinations of:

    • Weight training

    • Calisthenics

    • Brief aerobic exercise


  • Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness

  • Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction

  • Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping

  • High probability of injury


  • The body and its extremities provide resistance

Calisthenics #2

  • Often used in aerobic dance routines

  • Ab crunches and push ups are examples

  • Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than a substitute

  • Good approach for a beginner

Design An Exercise Prescription For The Development Of Muscular Strength and Endurance

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