Principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7
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Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance ( Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity) Chapters 6 and 7. Muscular Strength. Strength the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max).

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Muscular Strength

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Principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7

Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance (Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity)Chapters 6 and 7


Muscular strength

Muscular Strength

  • Strength

    • the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort

  • One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max)


Muscular endurance

Muscular Endurance

  • Endurance

    • The ability of a muscle to generate a sub-maximalforce,repeatedly, over time.


As you develop strength you will develop some endurance and vice versa

As You Develop Strength, You Will Develop Some EnduranceAnd Vice Versa


Defining sets and repetitions one set is made up of a number of repetitions

Defining Sets and Repetitions:One set is made up of a number of repetitions

  • Example: One set of 4 repetitions


Identify your goal

Identify Your Goal

  • To build primarily strength and power?

  • To build primarily endurance?

  • To gain some strength and some endurance?

  • To develop great hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)?


Is your goal to develop primarily strength

Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Strength?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Fewer than 8 repetitions in each set

  • Heavy resistance (80 to 90% of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week.


Is your goal to develop primarily endurance

Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group (possibly more)

  • More than 12-15 repetitions in each set

  • Light resistance (50 to 60 % or less of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week (possibly more)


Is your goal to develop some strength and some endurance

Is Your Goal To Develop Some Strength and Some Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Between 8 and 12 repetitions in each set

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • Moderate resistance (60% of 1RM / perhaps slightly more)

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week


Is your goal hypertrophy

Is Your Goal Hypertrophy?

  • Follow strength training procedures

  • Add some intensive endurance training procedures

  • Example to follow


Hypertrophy

100 lbs.

3 sets

6 reps (fatigue)

1800 lbs moved

50 lbs.

3 sets

20 reps (fatigue)

3000 lbs moved

Hypertrophy


How do i determine the appropriate amount of resistance for my workout

How Do I Determine The Appropriate Amount Of Resistance For My Workout?

  • Establish your goal, then choose one of the 3 following methods to determine your resistance:

    • 1RM

    • Trial and error

    • Delorme and Watkins


One repetition maximum 1rm

One Repetition Maximum (1RM)

  • Determine your 1RM

  • Work out at a percentage of your 1RM (percentage is based on your goal)


Trial and error

Trial And Error

  • Consider your goal

  • Determine an amount of resistance you can lift for the identified number of reps so that you fatigue on the last repetition


Progressive resistance training delorme and watkins

Progressive Resistance Training: Delorme and Watkins

  • Determine your 10 repetition maximum (10 RM)

  • Complete 3 sets

  • Intensity varies by set

    • 1st set: 50% of 10 RM load

    • 2nd set: 75% of 10 RM load

    • 3rd set: 100% of 10 RM load


Precaution

Precaution!

  • NEVER hold your breath while exerting force

  • Valsalva effect or valsalva maneuver

  • Exhale as you apply force

  • Inhale as you recover


Practical guidelines for resistance training

Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Warm up

  • Adjust equipment

  • Exercise large muscle groups first

    • Legs or large muscles in the upper body

  • Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities

  • Ultimately, you must overload


Practical guidelines for resistance training1

Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Strengthen your weak side:

    • Working arms and legs independently

  • Isolate the muscle group

  • Protect the back

  • Total body workout

    • Should be done no more than 2 - 3 times per week

    • May alternate days

    • May alternate equipment to save time


How many sets and reps should i perform

How Many Sets and Reps Should I Perform?

  • First Time In The Weight Room?

    • Complete one or two sets on each piece of equipment

    • Over time, progress to 2 sets, then 3 sets


Rest between sets

Rest Between Sets

  • Variable


Maintenance and re assessment guidelines for resistance training

Maintenance and Re-assessment Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Maintenance

    • Two sets, two times per week OR

    • One set of 12 repetitions

      • Fatigue on the last rep

  • Reassess periodically


Factors effecting muscular strength and endurance training

Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training

  • Muscle Size

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Muscular strength is lost at a rate of 1% per year after the age of 25

    • Use it or lose it

  • Tuft’s University


Benefits of resistance training

Benefits of Resistance Training


Prevention of osteoporosis

Prevention of Osteoporosis

  • Weight bearing activity

  • Sufficient calcium

  • Appropriateestrogen levels


Benefits

Benefits

  • Improved appearance

  • Improved body composition

  • Hypertrophy: increase muscle size

  • Decreased body fat

  • Minimal increase in flexibility

  • Improved performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills


Benefits1

Benefits

  • Increased basal metabolic rate

  • Increases metabolism


Metabolism

Metabolism

  • Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life

  • In short, it is the way the body produces energy


Metabolic rate

Metabolic Rate

  • The rate at which one burns calories

    • The higher, the better

  • Varies based on:

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Amount of muscle mass


Metabolic rate1

Metabolic Rate

  • Low metabolismis primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle

    (no matter the age)

    • loss of muscle mass lowers metabolism


Basal metabolic rate bmr

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

  • The number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state

  • The higher the BMR (or calories burned at rest) – the more desirable

    • Develop a calorie burning body!


Basal metabolic rate bmr 2

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) #2

  • As lean body mass increases, BMR increases

    • Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours

    • Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours


Work out willy vs couch potato pete

Willy

5’10”

170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

900 calories spent in activity & movement

12% BF

BMR=2000 calories

Pete

5’10”

170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

500 calories spent in activity & movement

20% BF

BMR=1600 calories

Work Out Willy VS Couch Potato Pete


Willy vs pete

Willy vs. Pete

  • Does Couch Potato Pete need to lose weight sense he has 20% body fat and weighs 170 pounds?


Types of skeletal muscular contractions

Types of Skeletal Muscular Contractions

  • Isometric

  • Concentric

  • Eccentric


Isometric contractions

Isometric Contractions

  • No appreciable change in length of the muscle( static contraction)

  • Involves no skeletal or joint movement


Concentric contractions dynamic

Concentric Contractions (dynamic)

  • The muscle shortens during contraction

    • Positive contraction


Eccentric contraction dynamic

Eccentric Contraction (dynamic)

  • Themuscle lengthensduring contraction

    • Negative contraction


Muscle soreness

Muscle Soreness

  • Results from structural damage

  • Desirable to have small, microscopic tears


Avoiding muscle soreness

Avoiding Muscle Soreness

  • Stretch

  • Minimize eccentric training

  • Minimize isometric training

  • Begin training using low intensities

  • Progress slowly


Principles of weight training rules of weight training

Principles of Weight Training / Rules of Weight Training


Isometric training

Isometric Training

  • Increases strength at a given joint angle

  • No joint movement

    • Must work at a variety of joint angles

    • At one time a preferred method of strength training for athletes

  • Used in rehab settings


Isometric training precautions

Isometric Training Precautions

  • Isometric contractions are contraindicated for:

    • hypertensive (valsalva effect)

    • individuals presenting coronary risk


Isotonic training

Isotonic Training

  • Characteristics of isotonic training :

    • Constant resistance

    • Variable speed of muscular contraction


Isotonic training1

Isotonic Training

  • Most common method of strength training

    • Also known asprogressive resistance training

    • Principle of Overload

  • Work through a full ROM

  • Involves use of free weights or machines


Free weights

Free Weights

  • Use a spotter

  • Increased chance of injury

  • Lack of stability

  • May build strength faster

  • Weight increments are easily changed


Weight machines

Weight Machines

  • Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds

  • The machine controls the line of force

  • Offers stability

  • Fewer injuries

  • No spotter required


Isokinetic training principles

Isokinetic Training Principles

  • Computerized - relies on hydraulics

  • Characterized by:

    • variable resistance

    • constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction


Isokinetic training principles 2

Isokinetic Training Principles #2

  • Disadvantage:Cost


Other strength training techniques

Other Strength Training Techniques

  • Circuit Training

  • Plyometrics

  • Calisthenics


Circuit training

Circuit Training

  • Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations

  • Rotate through the circuit 3 times

  • Consists of combinations of:

    • Weight training

    • Calisthenics

    • Brief aerobic exercise


Plyometrics

Plyometrics

  • Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness

  • Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction

  • Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping

  • High probability of injury


Calisthenics

Calisthenics

  • The body and its extremities provide resistance


Calisthenics 2

Calisthenics #2

  • Often used in aerobic dance routines

  • Ab crunches and push ups are examples

  • Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than a substitute

  • Good approach for a beginner


Design an exercise prescription for the development of muscular strength and endurance

Design An Exercise Prescription For The Development Of Muscular Strength and Endurance


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