Principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7
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Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance ( Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity) Chapters 6 and 7. Muscular Strength. Strength the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max).

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Principles of muscular strength and endurance primarily a non aerobic activity chapters 6 and 7

Principles of Muscular Strength and Endurance (Primarily A Non-Aerobic Activity)Chapters 6 and 7

Muscular strength
Muscular Strength

  • Strength

    • the maximal force a muscle can generate for a single maximal effort

  • One of the best ways to determine strength is by performing a 1-RM (one repetition max)

Muscular endurance
Muscular Endurance

  • Endurance

    • The ability of a muscle to generate a sub-maximalforce,repeatedly, over time.

Defining sets and repetitions one set is made up of a number of repetitions
Defining Sets and Repetitions:One set is made up of a number of repetitions

  • Example: One set of 4 repetitions

Identify your goal
Identify Your Goal

  • To build primarily strength and power?

  • To build primarily endurance?

  • To gain some strength and some endurance?

  • To develop great hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)?

Is your goal to develop primarily strength
Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Strength?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Fewer than 8 repetitions in each set

  • Heavy resistance (80 to 90% of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week.

Is your goal to develop primarily endurance
Is Your Goal To Develop Primarily Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group (possibly more)

  • More than 12-15 repetitions in each set

  • Light resistance (50 to 60 % or less of 1RM)

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week (possibly more)

Is your goal to develop some strength and some endurance
Is Your Goal To Develop Some Strength and Some Endurance?

  • 3 sets on each muscle group

  • Between 8 and 12 repetitions in each set

  • Fatigue on last rep

  • Moderate resistance (60% of 1RM / perhaps slightly more)

  • No more than 2 to 3 total body workouts per week

Is your goal hypertrophy
Is Your Goal Hypertrophy?

  • Follow strength training procedures

  • Add some intensive endurance training procedures

  • Example to follow


100 lbs.

3 sets

6 reps (fatigue)

1800 lbs moved

50 lbs.

3 sets

20 reps (fatigue)

3000 lbs moved


How do i determine the appropriate amount of resistance for my workout
How Do I Determine The Appropriate Amount Of Resistance For My Workout?

  • Establish your goal, then choose one of the 3 following methods to determine your resistance:

    • 1RM

    • Trial and error

    • Delorme and Watkins

One repetition maximum 1rm
One Repetition Maximum (1RM) My Workout?

  • Determine your 1RM

  • Work out at a percentage of your 1RM (percentage is based on your goal)

Trial and error
Trial And Error My Workout?

  • Consider your goal

  • Determine an amount of resistance you can lift for the identified number of reps so that you fatigue on the last repetition

Progressive resistance training delorme and watkins
Progressive Resistance Training: Delorme and Watkins My Workout?

  • Determine your 10 repetition maximum (10 RM)

  • Complete 3 sets

  • Intensity varies by set

    • 1st set: 50% of 10 RM load

    • 2nd set: 75% of 10 RM load

    • 3rd set: 100% of 10 RM load

Precaution! My Workout?

  • NEVER hold your breath while exerting force

  • Valsalva effect or valsalva maneuver

  • Exhale as you apply force

  • Inhale as you recover

Practical guidelines for resistance training
Practical Guidelines for My Workout?Resistance Training

  • Warm up

  • Adjust equipment

  • Exercise large muscle groups first

    • Legs or large muscles in the upper body

  • Begin any resistive training program slowly and with lower intensities

  • Ultimately, you must overload

Practical guidelines for resistance training1
Practical Guidelines for Resistance Training My Workout?

  • Strengthen your weak side:

    • Working arms and legs independently

  • Isolate the muscle group

  • Protect the back

  • Total body workout

    • Should be done no more than 2 - 3 times per week

    • May alternate days

    • May alternate equipment to save time

How many sets and reps should i perform
How Many Sets and Reps Should I Perform? My Workout?

  • First Time In The Weight Room?

    • Complete one or two sets on each piece of equipment

    • Over time, progress to 2 sets, then 3 sets

Rest between sets
Rest Between Sets My Workout?

  • Variable

Maintenance and re assessment guidelines for resistance training
Maintenance and Re-assessment Guidelines for Resistance Training

  • Maintenance

    • Two sets, two times per week OR

    • One set of 12 repetitions

      • Fatigue on the last rep

  • Reassess periodically

Factors effecting muscular strength and endurance training
Factors Effecting Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Training

  • Muscle Size

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Muscular strength is lost at a rate of 1% per year after the age of 25

    • Use it or lose it

  • Tuft’s University

Prevention of osteoporosis
Prevention of Osteoporosis Training

  • Weight bearing activity

  • Sufficient calcium

  • Appropriateestrogen levels

Benefits Training

  • Improved appearance

  • Improved body composition

  • Hypertrophy: increase muscle size

  • Decreased body fat

  • Minimal increase in flexibility

  • Improved performance in daily living activities and potentially sport and game skills

Benefits Training

  • Increased basal metabolic rate

  • Increases metabolism

Metabolism Training

  • Includes all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells necessary to sustain life

  • In short, it is the way the body produces energy

Metabolic rate
Metabolic Rate Training

  • The rate at which one burns calories

    • The higher, the better

  • Varies based on:

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Amount of muscle mass

Metabolic rate1
Metabolic Rate Training

  • Low metabolismis primarily related to a sedentary lifestyle

    (no matter the age)

    • loss of muscle mass lowers metabolism

Basal metabolic rate bmr
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Training

  • The number of calories required to sustain life in the resting state

  • The higher the BMR (or calories burned at rest) – the more desirable

    • Develop a calorie burning body!

Basal metabolic rate bmr 2
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) #2 Training

  • As lean body mass increases, BMR increases

    • Each pound of muscle tissue raises BMR by 30 to 50 calories every 24 hours

    • Each pound of fat burns 2 calories every 24 hours

Work out willy vs couch potato pete

Willy Training


170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

900 calories spent in activity & movement

12% BF

BMR=2000 calories



170 pounds

Consumes 2900 calories

500 calories spent in activity & movement

20% BF

BMR=1600 calories

Work Out Willy VS Couch Potato Pete

Willy vs pete
Willy vs. Pete Training

  • Does Couch Potato Pete need to lose weight sense he has 20% body fat and weighs 170 pounds?

Types of skeletal muscular contractions
Types of Skeletal Muscular Contractions Training

  • Isometric

  • Concentric

  • Eccentric

Isometric contractions
Isometric Contractions Training

  • No appreciable change in length of the muscle( static contraction)

  • Involves no skeletal or joint movement

Concentric contractions dynamic
Concentric Contractions (dynamic) Training

  • The muscle shortens during contraction

    • Positive contraction

Eccentric contraction dynamic
Eccentric Contraction (dynamic) Training

  • Themuscle lengthensduring contraction

    • Negative contraction

Muscle soreness
Muscle Soreness Training

  • Results from structural damage

  • Desirable to have small, microscopic tears

Avoiding muscle soreness
Avoiding Muscle Soreness Training

  • Stretch

  • Minimize eccentric training

  • Minimize isometric training

  • Begin training using low intensities

  • Progress slowly

Isometric training
Isometric Training Training

  • Increases strength at a given joint angle

  • No joint movement

    • Must work at a variety of joint angles

    • At one time a preferred method of strength training for athletes

  • Used in rehab settings

Isometric training precautions
Isometric Training Precautions Training

  • Isometric contractions are contraindicated for:

    • hypertensive (valsalva effect)

    • individuals presenting coronary risk

Isotonic training
Isotonic Training Training

  • Characteristics of isotonic training :

    • Constant resistance

    • Variable speed of muscular contraction

Isotonic training1
Isotonic Training Training

  • Most common method of strength training

    • Also known asprogressive resistance training

    • Principle of Overload

  • Work through a full ROM

  • Involves use of free weights or machines

Free weights
Free Weights Training

  • Use a spotter

  • Increased chance of injury

  • Lack of stability

  • May build strength faster

  • Weight increments are easily changed

Weight machines
Weight Machines Training

  • Weight increments are usually 5 to 10 to 15 pounds

  • The machine controls the line of force

  • Offers stability

  • Fewer injuries

  • No spotter required

Isokinetic training principles
Isokinetic Training Principles Training

  • Computerized - relies on hydraulics

  • Characterized by:

    • variable resistance

    • constant speed or velocity of the muscular contraction

Isokinetic training principles 2
Isokinetic Training Principles #2 Training

  • Disadvantage:Cost

Other strength training techniques
Other Strength Training Techniques Training

  • Circuit Training

  • Plyometrics

  • Calisthenics

Circuit training
Circuit Training Training

  • Uses a series of 12 to 15 stations

  • Rotate through the circuit 3 times

  • Consists of combinations of:

    • Weight training

    • Calisthenics

    • Brief aerobic exercise

Plyometrics Training

  • Develops muscle explosiveness and forcefulness

  • Consists of an eccentric contraction followed by a concentric contraction

  • Involves hops, bounds, depth jumping

  • High probability of injury

Calisthenics Training

  • The body and its extremities provide resistance

Calisthenics 2
Calisthenics #2 Training

  • Often used in aerobic dance routines

  • Ab crunches and push ups are examples

  • Best suited as a supplement to strength training rather than a substitute

  • Good approach for a beginner