Black carbon air pollution in berlin
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Black Carbon Air Pollution in Berlin. BC situation: measurements Source apportionment Abatement strategies. Andreas Kerschbaumer Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment Directorate IX, Environment Policy. Health. Particles. Climate. NOx. Ecosystems. SO2.

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Black Carbon Air Pollution in Berlin

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Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Black Carbon Air Pollution in Berlin

BC situation: measurements

Source apportionment

Abatement strategies

Andreas Kerschbaumer

Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment

Directorate IX, Environment Policy


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Health

Particles

Climate

NOx

Ecosystems

SO2

Materials

Ammonia

hydrocarbons

Crops

Introduction Impact chain of air pollution

PollutionImpact

Emission

Sources

negative effect on …

Black Carbon

traffic

other particles

house heating

Nitrogendioxide

power plants

Acidification

Industry & business

Eutrophication

agriculture

Troposphericozone


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Linksrelevant for particulate matter - BC

Health

Particles

Climate

NOx

Ecosystems

SO2

Materials

Ammonia

hydrocarbons

Crops

Introduction Impact chain of air pollution

PollutionImpact

Emission

Sources

negative effect on …

Black Carbon

traffic

other particles

house heating

Nitrogendioxide

power plants

Acidification

Industry & business

Eutrophierung

agriculture

Troposphericozone


Outline

Outline

EC – OC measurements in Berlin

automated

thermal analysis (daily means)

PM10, PM2.5, PM1

RUBIS (small devices)

thermal analysis (bi-weekly means)

PM10

high temporal (automated) and spatial (RUBIS) coverage

Source apportionment

EC and OC concentrations during high PM episodes

EC (or TC) local street contribution

Abatement measures

low emission zone (LEZ)

wood burning in small combustion plants

off-road machinery / construction sites


Air quality measurements

Air Quality Measurements

16 automated measurements

6 at street level

6 urban background

4 semi-rural urban areas

30 Mini-Samplers at streets

higher spatial resolution

2-weekly sample periods on filters

Elemental and Organic Carbon

Passive Samplers for NO2 and NOx


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

AQ monitoring in BerlinFocus on hot spots & urban exposure & source analysis

  • Low emission zone

  • Automatic monitoring site in residential areas and at the cities’ periphery

  • Automatic monitoring site in busy roads at the kerbside

  • monitoring site with miniaturised sampling devices

    • passive samplers for NO2

    • active PM10 mini samplers for EC/OC analysis


Pm2 5 at kerbside

PM2.5 at kerbside


Trend ec oc in berlin

Trend EC+OC in Berlin


Source analysis schematic of pm tc distribution

urban increment

Source analysis schematic of PM - TC distribution

total urban contribution relevant for AQ LV compliance

hotspotincrement


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

local traffic

regional background

urbanbackground

Sourceanalysis Berlin origin of kerbside PM2.5

Compositionof PM2.5-Contributions

simplified receptor modelling

speciation

source contribution

regional background

local traffic

background

background


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

local

traffic

resuspension +

resuspension +

other sources

other sources

abrasion by traffic

abrasion by traffic

resuspension +

resuspension +

4%

4%

abrasion by traffic

2%

2%

waste treatment and

waste treatment and

abrasion by traffic

combustion in

combustion in

4%

disposal

disposal

road transport

road transport

4%

manufacturing

manufacturing

0%

0%

7%

7%

road transport

road transport

industry

industry

9%

9%

other mobile sources

other mobile sources

2%

2%

and machinery

and machinery

production processes

production processes

4%

4%

8%

8%

additional combustion

additional combustion

1%

1%

urban

solvent and other

solvent and other

product use

product use

non-industrial

non-industrial

5%

5%

combustion

combustion

3%

3%

combustion in energy

combustion in energy

and tranformation

and tranformation

combustion in energy

combustion in energy

industries

industries

and tranformation

and tranformation

1%

1%

industries

industries

production processes

production processes

9%

9%

large

-

scale

1%

1%

road transport

combustion in

manufacturing

combustion in manufacturing

non-industrial

non-industrial

road transport

12%

industry

industry

combustion

combustion

12%

0%

0%

10%

10%

resuspension +

resuspension +

agriculture

agriculture

other sources

other sources

abrasion by traffic

abrasion by traffic

4%

4%

11%

11%

3%

3%

homemade vehicle tailpipe contribution

Source analysis sources of kerbside PM2.5

background

Berlin, 2007

Source: M. Pesch Technical University - Berlin


Percentage of local traffic contribution to kerbside pollution

Percentage of local traffic contribution to kerbside pollution

100%

10

17

19

80%

12

10

35

heavy duty vehicles

4

7

light duty vehicles

11

60%

12

coach

7

urban bus

2

40%

passenger car

59

52

46

20%

0%

PM10

NO2

Total Carbon


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

-70%

LEZ impact: change of particle exhaust emissionsbased on fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee (new emission factor data base HBEFa 3.1)

emissions extrapolated to the entire main road network based on the fleet composition at Frankfurter Allee (with DPF-retrofit, only warm emissions, no cold start impact) (preliminary results, vers. 22/3/2011)


Berlin lez impact analysis total carbon concentration

Berlin LEZ – impact analysis total carbon concentration

traffic related* black¥ carbon particle concentration in Berlin

* local BC increment at traffic sites, adjusted to traffic volumes trend relative to 2007 before LEZ came into force

¥ elemental carbon (EC) particles plus other deposited organic compounds (OC)


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Modernisation of public bus fleet

  • Objectives

    • all busses with filter

    • 600 busses With Euro5/EEV

  • Realisation

    • 94 % busses with filter

    • 520 busses with Euro5/EEV

  • Impact on Emission

    • 37 t/ less exhaust particles

    • 732 t/a less NOx


Small combustion growing relevance

small combustiongrowing relevance

biomass fuel use has become more attractive

rising oil & gas prices

promoted as a renewable fuel as climate protection measure

projections suggest 50-100% growth in biomass burning

problem for PM and BC (TC) pollution?

initially focused in Scandinavia and Alpine region

abandoned in the major cites of NW Europe

Berlin: <2% of homes still heated with solid fuel

small source in urban emission inventories

average contribution 1-2 µg/m³ PM10 in Berlin/Paris/London

much higher during stagnant winter episodes (>10 µg/m³ PM10)

wood combustion in urban areas used as a secondary heating

indication that old combustion units are still used

source: UBA Vienna, 2006)


Source analysis berlin contribution of biomass burning

result of speciation and PMF analysis

source analysis Berlin contribution of biomass burning

Source: Wagener et al. (EAC 2011)


Small combustion regulation in aachen option for berlin

Small combustionRegulation in Aachen – Option for Berlin

applies to single room heaters with 4-15 kW

requires already now stricter standards for new equipment

40 mg/m³ for new devices

existing units need to comply already by 2015

75 mg/m³ for existing units

no extra transition periods granted

requires filter technology for retrofit & sufficient market coverage

initial problems for the regulator:

missing framework for monitoring and control of in use filter efficiency

project with real-world tests of retrofitted filters

lacking market for type-approved retrofit kits

lacking demand for market development

similarity with road vehicle DPF retrofit development

retrofit costs relatively high compared to value of heating devices


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Particle filters for construction machinery

  • Problem:

    • ca. 140 t/a Diesel exhaust particles from construction machines

    • comparison: Diesel exhaust particles from road traffic:

      • 2009: ca. 224 t/a (LEZ)

      • 2015: ca. 124 t/a (LEZ without exemption)

  • Goal:

    • Reduction of Diesel exhaust emissions: 75% until 2015

    • i.e. 100 t/a less

  • Obstacle:

    • Filter-Regeneration at different operating conditions

    • Costs

    • Filter availability


Particle limit values for nrmm compared to heavy duty vehicles

Particle Limit Values for NRMM compared to heavy-duty vehicles

Limit values for new registration

stage IIIA

stageII and IIIA

stageII and IIIA

stageII and IIIA

stage IIIB


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Emission standards for machinery operating for public construction sites in Berlin

  • Diesel machinery:

    • from 2014: particle limit value stage IIIB (0,025 g/kWh), e.g. Filter retrofitting for engines ≥ 37 kW

    • from 2014: particle limit value stage IIIA for engines from 19 to 37 kW

  • Ignited machinery:

    • engines < 19 kW emission standards stage II according to directive 97/68/EG , also two-stroke engines

    • other two-stroke engines banned


Black carbon air pollution in berlin

Thank you !


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