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Learning Styles. An Introduction to the Ways People Learn. Learning Styles: Topics. Background Learning Style Models Teaching to All Types References. Background. Students have different “learning styles”

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learning styles

Learning Styles

An Introduction to the Ways People Learn

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

learning styles topics
Learning Styles: Topics
  • Background
  • Learning Style Models
  • Teaching to All Types
  • References

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

background
Background
  • Students have different “learning styles”
  • Learning styles describe how students prefer to and are best able to receive and process information

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

background1
Background
  • Learning styles indicate preferences for:
    • Facts and data
    • Theories and models
    • Visual presentation – pictures and diagrams
    • Verbal presentation – written and spoken
    • Active and interactive learning
    • Introspective and individual learning

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

background2
Background
  • Teaching solely in a manner not well suited to a student’s learning style may cause enough discomfort to interfere with learning

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

background3
Background

However…

  • Teaching only to the preferred modes may result in students lacking the mental agility to reach their potential academically and professionally
  • In other words…they might not adapt well

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

learning style models
Learning Style Models

Three common learning styles models include:

  • Kolb’s Learning Style Model
  • Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

kolb s learning style
Kolb’s Learning Style
  • Type 1 – Concrete, Reflective
  • Type 2 – Abstract, Reflective
  • Type 3 – Abstract, Active
  • Type 4 – Concrete, Active

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

kolb s learning style1
Kolb’s Learning Style
  • Type 1 – Concrete, Reflective
    • Typically asks “Why?”
    • Responds well to explanations of how course material relates to their experience, their interests, and their future careers
    • To be successful with Type 1, the instructor should motivate

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

kolb s learning style2
Kolb’s Learning Style
  • Type 2 – Abstract, Reflective
    • Typically asks “What?”
    • Responds well to information that is presented in an organized, logical fashion and benefits from reflection
    • Instructor should function as an expert

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

kolb s learning style3
Kolb’s Learning Style
  • Type 3 – Abstract, Active
    • Typically asks “How?”
    • Responds well to working actively on well-defined tasks and by trial-and-error in an environment that allows them to fail safely
    • Instructor should function as a coach by providing guided practice and feedback.

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

kolb s learning style4
Kolb’s Learning Style
  • Type 4 – Concrete, Active
    • Typically asks “What if?”
    • Prefers to apply course material in new situations to solve real problems.
    • Instructor should stay out of the way to let students discover things on their own.

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman
Felder-Silverman
  • Sensing/Intuitive
  • Visual/Verbal
  • Inductive/Deductive
  • Active/Reflective
  • Sequential/Global

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman1
Felder-Silverman
  • Sensing
    • Concrete, Practical
    • Oriented toward facts and procedures
  • Intuitive
    • Conceptual, Innovative
    • Oriented toward theories and meanings

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman2
Felder-Silverman
  • Visual
    • Prefer visual representations of material
    • Pictures, Diagrams, Flow charts
  • Verbal
    • Prefer written and spoken explanations

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman3
Felder-Silverman
  • Inductive
    • Prefer presentations that proceed from the specific to the general
  • Deductive
    • Prefer presentations that go from general to the specific

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman4
Felder-Silverman
  • Active
    • Learn by trying things out
    • Prefer working with others
  • Reflective
    • Learn by thinking things through
    • Prefer working alone

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

felder silverman5
Felder-Silverman
  • Sequential
    • Linear, Orderly
    • Learn in small incremental steps
  • Global
    • Holistic, Systems thinkers
    • Learn in large leaps

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

myers briggs
Myers-Briggs
  • Extraverts/Introverts
  • Sensors/Intuitors
  • Thinkers/Feelers
  • Judgers/Perceivers

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

myers briggs1
Myers-Briggs
  • Extraverts
    • Like to try things out
    • Focus on the outer world of people
  • Introverts
    • Think things through
    • Focus on the inner world of ideas

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

myers briggs2
Myers-Briggs
  • Sensors
    • Practical
    • Detail-oriented
    • Focus on facts and procedures
  • Intuitors
    • Imaginative
    • Concept-oriented
    • Focus on meanings and possibilities

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

myers briggs3
Myers-Briggs
  • Thinkers
    • Skeptical
    • Tend to make decisions based on logic and rules
  • Feelers
    • Appreciative
    • Tend to make decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

myers briggs4
Myers-Briggs
  • Judgers
    • Set and follow agendas
    • Seek closure even with incomplete data
  • Perceivers
    • Adapt to changing circumstances
    • Resist closure to obtain more data

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

teaching to all types
Teaching to All Types

Appealing to a wide array of learning styles can be achieved, based on the Felder-Silverman model, by:

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

teaching to all types1
Teaching to All Types
  • Using plots, graphics, and demonstrations along with oral and written explanations (visual/verbal)
  • Balancing concrete information such as experimental results with conceptual information like theories and models (sensing/intuitive)

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

teaching to all types2
Teaching to All Types
  • Demonstrating the logical flow of material but also making connections to other classes, topics, and everyday experiences (sequential/global)
  • Encouraging or requiring cooperative learning (all learning styles)

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

teaching to all types3
Teaching to All Types
  • Asking students to explain a general principle given only experimental observations (inductive)
  • Providing in class time for students to consider the material presented as well as for active participation (reflective/active)

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

references
References
  • Matters of Style, Felder, Richard, ASEE Prism, 6(4), 18-23, December 1996
  • http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/

Gateway Engineering Education Coalition

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