A Nation of Immigrants??. YES! every single person who lives here is a descendant of an ancestor who came from another country * The US is a melting pot – different races, cultures, and religions all rolled into one. .
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YES! every single person who lives here is a descendant of an ancestor who came from another country
* The US is a melting pot – different races, cultures, and religions all rolled into one.
American political traditions can be traced by to the Enlightenment (Reason and Science) movement taking place in England in the 1600’s.
England ruled by a Monarch (King or Queen) – give ownership and control of lands in exchange for loyalty, tax payments, and military support.
Protected the privileges and authority of the nobles
Landowners have equal protection under the law and right to trial by jury
Limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing that no one would be above the law
TURNING POINT IN WORLD HISTORY!
Parliament created under King John of England
Parliament is a law making legislature made up of common people
* Glorious Revolution – Parliament removes James II and invites his daughter Mary and her husband William to rule (peaceful transfer of power)
* Shows Parliament became more powerful than monarch
English Bill of Rights – free elections, fair trial, elimination of cruel and unusual punishments, restricted monarch’s power
Common Law – system of law based on precedent and customs (based on court systems)
John Locke – philosopher; said people had ‘Natural Rights’ – life, liberty, and property (2nd Treatise of Government)
Social Contract of the people
Jean-Jacques Rousseau –
Social Contract – government protects the peoples rights and the people will obey the government (as influenced by John Locke)
Baron De Montesquieu
Separation of Powers – divide gov’t into different parts to keep it balanced and avoid one part becoming to strong
Indentured Servitude led to the practice of Slavery. Slavery was cheaper, did not get the Rights of Englishmen – were property. Became backbone of the Southern Economy.
The ruler is not above the law.
People should have a voice in their government.
Citizens have basic rights that are protected by law
A consistent system of common law
A legislature made up of representatives of different groups of citizens
By the 1750’s, the English government saw the colonies as a great source of wealth
Salutary Neglect - The English government basically ignored the colonies and colonists for a long time
1760 – Mercantilism instituted by England
theory that a country should sell more products to other countries than it buys from other countries – ensures $$$$
King George III began to squeeze all the wealth out of America.
England required the American colonies to sell raw materials to England at low prices and also
Required the colonists in America to buy English products at high prices.
Citizens in the colonies began to suffer financially.
1763, Britain and Colonists win French & Indian War
In huge debt, Britain placed new taxes on colonists to help pay off the debt
1765 – Stamp Act - requiring colonists to purchase and attach expensive tax stamps to all newspapers and documents
Using the slogan, “No taxation without representation,” many colonists boycotted, or refused to buy, English products. (it worked and tax repealed…for now)
1767 – Coercive Acts (Colonists called it Intolerable Acts)
These laws restricted or took away 3 rights or protections of the colonists:
1. Colonists could no longer have a trial by jury.
2. British soldiers could search the colonist’s homes without just cause.
3. British soldiers could move in and takeover the colonist’s homes.
In 1770, as colonists protested these laws, several were killed by troops at the Boston Massacre.
In 1773, The Tea Act, passed by Parliament, caused the price of tea to rise. Colonists responded by dressing up like Indians and dumping tea into Boston Harbor, during The Boston Tea Party.
** Many of the states also included a bill of rights guaranteeing certain basic freedoms to the citizens of their state, including trial by jury