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Chapter 43 Mammals. Section 2 Characteristics of Mammals. Endothermy. Allows mammals to live in cold environments and remain active Provides energy for strenuous activities like migrating Fast metabolism requires more energy Cold environments- blubber & thick furred animals.

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Chapter 43 mammals

Chapter 43Mammals

Section 2

Characteristics of Mammals


Endothermy
Endothermy

  • Allows mammals to live in cold environments and remain active

  • Provides energy for strenuous activities like migrating

  • Fast metabolism requires more energy

  • Cold environments- blubber & thick furred animals


Circulatory system
Circulatory System

  • Two atria and two ventricles

  • Septum- wall of tissue separates ventricles

  • No mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood

  • Complete septum- adaptation that allows mammals’ bodies to transport oxygen more efficiently


Respiratory system
Respiratory System

  • Efficient gas exchange

  • Large lungs- many alveoli- small sacs where gas exchange occurs

  • Expand ribcage and take in air through lungs

  • Diaphragm- contraction enlarges thorax and increases thoracic activity- breathing


Feeding digestion
Feeding & Digestion

  • Incisors- cut food

  • Canines- grip, puncture, & tear

  • Premolars- shear, shred, cut, or grind

  • Molars- grind, crush, or cut

  • Baleen whales- baleen- thin plates of keratin- trap prey


Digesting plants
Digesting Plants

  • Cellulose- polymer of sugar glucose- hard to digest

  • Stomach- four chambers

  • One chamber = true stomach

  • Rumen- another chamber- contains symbiotic microorganisms


Digesting plants1
Digesting Plants

  • Partly digested in rumen, then regurgitated, chewed again and swallowed again

  • Animals may regurgitate multiple times

  • Ruminant animals- cows, sheep, goats, giraffes, deer


Digesting plants2
Digesting Plants

  • Horses, zebras, rodents, rabbits, & elephants- cecum

  • Cecum- large sac that branches from small intestines and ferments food

  • Animals with a cecum do not chew cud


Nervous system
Nervous System

  • Mammal brain is large

  • Cerebrum- outer region of brain

  • Sense organs, movements, behavior, memory, learning

  • Vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste

  • Echolocation- emit high-frequency sound-waves, which bounce off objects


Development
Development

  • Mammals develop differently


Monotremes
Monotremes

  • Lay one to two eggs

  • Incubate by body heat

  • Yolk nourishes young

  • Once young hatch, female feeds young milk until fully developed


Marsupials
Marsupials

  • Develop in uterus for short time

  • When only 2-3 cm, young develop in mother’s pouch and attach to a nipple to feed

  • Young stay in pouch for several months


Placental mammals
Placental Mammals

  • Well-developed young are born live

  • Placenta provides nourishment & oxygen

  • After birth, infants feed on milk for several weeks or months


Review
REVIEW!!!

  • A mammal eats about ten times as much food as a lizard of the same size. Explain this difference.

  • Describe the function of a rumen.


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