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Anatomy Review. Skin Thick Cellular 2 layers. Mucus Membranes. Structure Simple epithelium Defenses. Eyes. Protective structures Molecules – Lysozyme, Ig A. Minor Infections Folliculitis (Pimples) Invasion of hair follicles Eye infection - ______

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Anatomy review
Anatomy Review

  • Skin

    • Thick

    • Cellular

    • 2 layers

Mucus membranes
Mucus Membranes

  • Structure

    • Simple epithelium

  • Defenses


  • Protective structures

  • Molecules – Lysozyme, Ig A

Bacterial skin disease staphylococcal

Minor Infections

Folliculitis (Pimples)

Invasion of hair follicles

Eye infection - ______

Multiple follicles – _______________

Many carriers

Low bacterial counts needed to infect wounds

Scalded Skin Syndrome

Exfoliative exotoxins

Infants most affected

Outer skin layers shed

High fever

Septicemia and shock may occur

Impetigo of Newborn

Crusting vesicles on skin surface

Antimicrobial lotions needed

Bacterial Skin Disease — Staphylococcal

Bacterial skin disease streptococcal

Scarlet Fever

Bacteriophage toxin causes rash

Strep. throat often also seen

Complications – glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever

Many carriers


St. Anthony’s fire

Historically high mortality, not so now

Red raised rubbery lesion

Focal spread may occur





Bacterial Skin Disease — Streptococcal

Bacterial skin disease nonspecific
Bacterial Skin Disease — Nonspecific

  • Pyoderma/ Impetigo

    • Strep./Staph./ Corynebacterium

    • Childhood infection

    • Skin depigmentation may occur

    • Penicillin treats most infections

Gram negative skin pathogens
Gram negative skin pathogens

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Common in pools and improperly chlorinated hot tubs

    • Dermatitis

    • Ear infections

    • Severe respiratory infections in burn victims

  • Also Serratia marcescens

Viral skin diseases

Rubella German measles

Systemic with skin rash, joint pain

Mild but can cause birth defects


Deafness, heart and liver problems


Lymphatic tissue affected

Rash and fever develop, cough and conjunctivitis

Middle ear infections and URT infections may occur

Respiratory route of transmission

Chickenpox/ Shingles

Varicella zoster virus (VZS)

Respiratory route of infection

Systemic symptoms accompanied by vesicular rash

May be fatal in adults but childhood vaccination programs provide 20 years immunity

Recurrences in elderly patients cause a painful disease – shingles

Latent virus, shingle vaccine is newly available

Viral Skin Diseases

Other viral pox diseases
Other Viral Pox diseases

  • Smallpox

    • Eradicated

    • Virus reserves exist

    • ? Bioterrorism

  • Cowpox

    • Milder disease

    • Similar lesions

    • Led to vaccine for smallpox

  • Monkeypox

    • Similar to smallpox virus

    • ? Species barrier?

    • Vaccination precaution in endemic areas

Viral skin diseases warts
Viral Skin Diseases — Warts

  • Human Papilloma virus (HPV)

    • Affects skin and mucus membranes

    • May require excision

    • Link between some strains and cervical cancer

    • Gardasil

Fungal skin diseases
Fungal Skin Diseases

  • Ringworm

    • Tinea cruris

    • Tinea capitis/barbae

    • Tinea pedis/unguium

    • Very contagious

    • Secondary bacterial infections may occur

    • OTC medications available

Subcutaneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycoses

  • Sporotrichosis

    • ____________________ is pathogen

    • Gardeners, farmers

    • Transmitted from animals or humans

    • Ulceration and inflammation at puncture site

    • KI treats subcutaneous lesions

Opportunistic mycoses
Opportunistic Mycoses


Oral or vaginal infections common

May cause systemic infections in immunocompromised (AIDS)

Bacterial eye diseases

Neonatal Ophthalmia

Neisseria gonorrheae

Tx via birth canal

Routine antibiotics or silver nitrate has greatly reduced incidence of blindness

Chlamydia trachomatis

Leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide

500 million affected

S.W. Native Americans only at risk group in U.S.A.

Flies are a vector

Bacterial Eye Diseases

Viral eye diseases
Viral Eye Diseases

  • Adenovirus (Shipyard Eye)

    • Virus carried in dust

    • Cornea may be cloudy for up to 2 years

    • Sometimes nosocomial

  • Herpes Keratoconjunctivitis

    • Complication for cold sore sufferers

    • Leading cause of non-retinal blindness in U.S.A.