Growing America. 1860 - 1914. Reasons for Growth. Transcontinental Railroad Connecting the East and West The Gold Rush Immigration Workers for the railroads Problems in other countries The Irish Potato Famine Religious persecution Industrialization Move from Rural to Urban
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1860 - 1914
Denver, Colorado 4,749 106,713
Kansas City, Missouri 3,965 50,093
Omaha, Nebraska 1,883 140,452
“Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians! … I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God’s heaven to kill Indians. – Colonel John Milton Chivington, U.S. Army
As the attack began, the Cheyenne raised the American flag and the white flag of surrender, but Chivington and his troops continued the attack.
“I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces … With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors … By whom were they mutilated? By the United States troops…”
This battle left the Cheyenne in pieces. Many of those who survived vowed revenge, which further worsened ties between Native Americans and white settlers.
Custer underestimated the size and determination of the village he planned to attack. As a result, the battle led to “Custer’s Last Stand” where his soldiers were swarmed and likely overrun within an hour of battle. Not a single one of his troops survived.
Some Native Americans had formed a religion called “Ghost Dance.” They believed Jesus Christ had returned to earth as a Native American and would raise the Native Americans above the earth and bring all of their ancestors back to earth. They believed the “Ghost Dance” would bring about this change.
Soldiers saw Native Americans performing this across the plains and worried they were preparing to attack the U.S. military.
Troops rushed in to disarm Native Americans, but one Native American (Black Coyote) who didn’t speak English refused to hand over his rifle. As soldiers tried to pry the weapon from his hands, his rifle went off. Soldiers opened fire. With most Native Americans already disarmed, they stood no chance.
“The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot right through… and after most all of them had been killed a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Little boys came out of their places of refuge, and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there.” Captain Edward S. Godfrey
Displacing Native Americans
Forced Assimilation required Native Americans to become American or disappear
The near extinction of the Bison
$286 per year
About $5960 per year by
"I got a room in the house of some friends who lived near the factory. I pay $1 a week for the room and am allowed to do light housekeeping - that is, cook my meals in it. I get my own breakfast in the morning, just a cup of coffee and a roll, and at noon time I come home to dinner and take a plate of soup and a slice of bread with the lady of the house. My food for a week costs a dollar, just as it did in Allen Street, and I have the rest of my money to do as I like with. I am earning $5.50 a week now [equivalent to approximately $115.00 in today's money] , and will probably get another increase soon.”
“The machines go like mad all day, because the faster you work the more money you get. Sometimes in my haste I get my finger caught and the needle goes right through it. It goes so quick, though, that it does not hurt much. I bind the finger up with a piece of cotton and go on working. We all have accidents like that. Where the needle goes through the nail it makes a sore finger, or where it splinters a bone it does much harm. Sometimes a finger has to come off. Generally, though, one can be cured by a salve.”