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The Progressive Movement. “The muckrakers are often indispensable to society but only if they know when to stop raking the muck.” Theodore Roosevelt. Timeline of Events. 1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union is founded 1889 Eiffel Tower opens for visitors 1896

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the progressive movement

The Progressive Movement

“The muckrakers are often indispensable to society but only if they know when to stop raking the muck.”

Theodore Roosevelt

timeline of events
Timeline of Events
  • 1874
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union is founded
  • 1889
    • Eiffel Tower opens for visitors
  • 1896
    • William McKinley is elected president
timeline of events1
Timeline of Events
  • 1898
    • Marie Curie discovers radium
  • 1899
    • Boer War is South Africa begins
  • 1900
    • William McKinley is reelected
timeline of events2
Timeline of Events
  • 1901
    • McKinley is assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt becomes president
    • Commonwealth of Australia is created
timeline of events3
Timeline of Events
  • 1904
    • Theodore Roosevelt is elected president
    • Ida Tarbell writes The History of Standard Oil
    • Lincoln Steffens writes The Shame of the Cities
timeline of events4
Timeline of Events
  • 1906
    • Upton Sinclair writes The Jungle about the meatpacking industry
    • Meat Inspection Act is passed
    • Pure Food and Drug Act is passed
timeline of events5
Timeline of Events
  • 1908
    • William Howard Taft is elected president
    • Ray Stannard Baker writes Following the Color Line
  • 1909
    • NAACP is founded by W.E.B. DuBois
    • Frank Lloyd Wright builds the Robie House
timeline of events6
Timeline of Events
  • 1910
    • Mexican Revolution begins
  • 1912
    • 17th Amendment passes allowing for the direct election of senators
    • Bull Moose Party forms with Roosevelt as its nominee
timeline of events7
Timeline of Events
  • 1912
    • Woodrow Wilson is elected president
  • 1913
    • China’s Qin Dynasty topples
    • Federal Reserve Act passes
timeline of events8
Timeline of Events
  • 1914
    • World War I begins in Europe
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act passes
    • Federal Trade Commission is established
timeline of events9
Timeline of Events
  • 1916
    • Woodrow Wilson is reelected president
  • 1917
    • United States enters into World War I
timeline of events10
Timeline of Events
  • 1918
    • 18th Amendment outlaws alcohol
    • Mohandas Gandhi becomes leader of the independence movement in India
  • 1920
    • 19th Amendments grants women the right to vote
four goals of progressivism
Four Goals of Progressivism
  • By 1900, journalists and writers had exposed the unsafe conditions faced by factory workers
  • Reformers tried to get the government to be more responsive
  • These reform efforts formed the progressive movement, which aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life
four goals of progressivism1
Four Goals of Progressivism
  • Although reformers never fully agreed on the problems needed to be solved, they all shared at least one of the progressivism goals
    • Protecting social welfare
    • Promoting moral improvement
    • Creating economic reform
    • Fostering efficiency
protecting social welfare
Protecting Social Welfare
  • Social welfare reformers worked to soften harsh conditions of industrialization
  • The Social Gospel and settlement house movements aimed to help the poor with
    • Community houses
    • Churches
    • Social services
  • The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)
    • opened libraries
    • sponsored classes
    • built swimming pools and handball courts
  • The Salvation Army
    • fed the poor in soup kitchens
    • cared for children in nurseries
    • sent “slum brigades” to instruct poor immigrants in middle class values of hard work and temperance
protecting social welfare1
Protecting Social Welfare
  • Many women were inspired by the settlement houses to take action
  • Florence Kelley—advocate for improving the lives of women and children
    • Appointed chief inspector of factories for Illinois
    • Helped win passage of the Illinois Factory Act in 1893
      • The act prohibited child labor and limited women’s working hours
promoting moral improvement
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Other reformers felt morality, not the workplace, held the key to improving the lives of poor people
  • They wanted immigrants and the poor to improve their personal behavior
  • Prohibition was one program aimed at helping people uplift themselves
promoting moral improvement1
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
    • Founded in Cleveland 1874
    • Spearheaded the crusade for prhibition
    • Members entered saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol to advance their cause
    • By 1911—245,000 members
    • The largest women’s group in the nation’s history
    • Frances Willard urged members to “do everything”
      • They opened kindergartens for immigrants
      • Visited prisoners and asylums
      • Worked for suffrage
    • The reform activities provided women with expanded public roles—which they used toward suffrage
promoting moral improvement2
Promoting Moral Improvement
  • Prohibition led to trouble with immigrant groups
  • Anti-Saloon League “the church in action against the saloon”
    • Founded 1895
    • Sought to close saloons
    • Tried to get laws passed to punish those who drank
    • Endorsed politicians who opposed “demon rum”
    • Carry Nation was a strong advocate for the closing of saloons
      • Destroyed saloons with her hatchet
      • Scolded customers
  • Between 1900-1917, many states in the south and west had prohibited the sale, production, and use of alcohol
above carry nation and her hatchet and bible
Above: Carry Nation and her hatchet and Bible

Women’s temperance movement 1873-74

creating economic reform
Creating Economic Reform
  • Socialism sprung out the of the Panic of 1893
    • Eugene V. Debs helped organize the Socialist Party in 1901
    • Brought about by the uneven balance of big business, government, and ordinary people under the free-market system of capitalism
  • Progressives distanced themselves from Socialism, but knew what Debs was talking about
creating economic reform1
Creating Economic Reform
  • Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in magazines became known as muckrakers—refers to “Pilgrim’s Progress” in which the man is so busy raking up the muck of this world that he does not raise his eyes to heaven
fostering efficiency
Fostering Efficiency
  • Many progressives put their faith in scientific principles to make society and the workplace more efficient
  • Louis Brandeis defended an Oregon Law limiting a woman’s workday to 10 hours
    • Instead of focusing on the argument, he focused on the data produced by social scientists documenting the high costs of long working hours
    • This type of argument—the Brandeis Brief—became a model for later reform litigation
fostering efficiency1
Fostering Efficiency
  • Fredrick Winslow Taylor began using time and motion to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts
  • “Taylorism” became a management fad
  • Assembly lines did speed up production, but required people to work like machines
    • Caused high worker turnover
    • Henry Ford used incentives to attract thousands of workers
reforming local government
Reforming Local Government
  • Political bosses ran the cities and social problems engulfed the cities
  • Natural disasters usually played a part in reform
    • A hurricane and tidal wave nearly destroyed Galveston, TX in 1900
      • The city council botched the rebuilding so badly, the state legislature appointed a commission—this became a model for other cities
    • A flood in Dayton, Ohio destroyed hundreds of acres without warning
      • Due to the swift action of the council, Dayton was rebuilt much faster than Galveston 13 years before
  • City Councils became the system of government used by cities
galveston hurricane 1900
Galveston Hurricane 1900

Dayton Flood 1913

reform mayors
Reform Mayors
  • Mayors introduced progressive reforms without changing how government was organized
    • Hazen Pingree of Detroit
      • Introduced a fair tax structure, lowered fares for public transportation, rooted out corruption, set up work relief for the unemployed
      • Detroit city workers built schools, parks, and a municipal lighting plant
    • Tom Johnson of Cleveland
      • Converted the utilities to publicly owned enterprises
      • Believed citizens should play a more active role in city government
      • Held meetings in a large circus tent and invited the city to question officials about city management
reform governors
Reform Governors
  • Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business with the leadership of Robert La Follette—”fighting Bob”
    • His major target was the railroad—he taxed railroad property the same rate as other businesses
    • Set up a commission to regulate rates
    • Forbade railroads to issue free passes to state officials
  • Other reform governors included Charles B. Aycock of N.C., and James S. Hogg of TX
protecting working children
Protecting Working Children
  • As the number of working children increased, reformers worked to end child labor
  • Businesses hired children because they performed unskilled jobs for lower wages and their small hands were perfect for small parts
  • Immigrants sent their children to work because they saw them as part of the family economy
  • Wages were so low for adults that children needed to work to make ends meet
protecting working children1
Protecting Working Children
  • Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue
  • Many developed serious health problems and stunted growth
protecting working children2
Protecting Working Children
  • The National Child Labor Committee (1904) sent investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions
  • They then organized exhibitions with photographs and statistics to dramatize the children’s plight
  • Joined by labor unions who argued that child labor lowered wages for all workers
  • Groups pressured the government to pass the Keating-Owen Act in 1916
    • Prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced with child labor
    • 2 years later, Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional due to interference with states’ rights to regulate labor
  • Reformers did succeed in nearly every state by effecting legislation that banned child labor and set maximum hours
efforts to limit working hours
Efforts to Limit Working Hours
  • Muller v. Oregon—Louis D. Brandeis-assisted by Florence Kelley and Josephine Goldmark—
    • argued that poor working women were much more economically insecure than large corporations
    • Convinced the Court to uphold law limiting women to a ten-hour workday
  • Bunting v. Oregon—Court upheld a ten-hour workday for men
efforts to limit working hours1
Efforts to Limit Working Hours
  • Progressives also succeeded in winning workers’ compensation to aid the families of workers who were hurt or killed on the job
  • Beginning in 1902, one state after another passed legislation requiring employers to pay benefits in death cases
reforming elections
Reforming Elections
  • William S. U’Ren prompted his state of Oregon to adopt the scret ballot, the initiative, the referendum, and the recall
    • The initiative and referendum gave citizens the power to create laws
    • The recall allowed citizens to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it
  • By 1920, 20 states adopted at least one of these procedures
reforming elections1
Reforming Elections
  • In 1899, Minnesota passed the first mandatory statewide primary system
    • This enabled voters, instead of political machines, to choose candidates for public office through a special popular election
  • About 2/3rds of the states had adopted some form of direct primary by 1915
direct election of senators
Direct Election of Senators
  • It was the success of the direct primary that paved the way for the 17th Amendment to the Constitution
  • Before 1913, each state’s legislature had chosen its own U.S. senators, which put even more power in the hands of party bosses and wealthy corporation heads
  • To force senators to be more responsive to the public, progressives pushed for the popular election of senators
direct election of senators1
Direct Election of Senators
  • At first the senate did not go along with it, but gradually states began allowing voters to nominate senatorial candidates in direct primaries
  • As a result, Congress passed the 17th amendment in 1912—ratified 1913
  • This amendment drew more attention to women in public life and the issue of woman suffrage
women in the work force
Women in the Work Force
  • Before the civil war, women were expected to devote their time to their families
  • By the 19th century, only upper and middle class women could afford to do so, poorer women had no choice but to work for wages outside the home
  • Farm women had to attend to the household chores, plus, raise livestock, plow the fields, and harvest the crops
women in the work force1
Women in the Work Force
  • In cities, women found jobs at an easy rate, but were unable to join the unions to which had become so popular and necessary
  • 1 out of 5 had jobs; 25% in manufacturing
  • The garment trade claimed about half of all women industrial workers
    • They typically held the least skilled positions and were paid half as much as men
    • Many were single and were presumed to only be supporting themselves, while men were assumed to be supporting families
  • Women began to fill new jobs in offices, stores, and classrooms
    • These jobs required a high school education
    • By 1890, women high school graduates outnumbered men
    • New buisiness schools were preparing women to work new machines—such as the typewriter—and to be stenographers
women in the work force2
Women in the Work Force
  • Many women without formal education contributed to their families by cleaning for other families
  • After 2 million African American women were freed, poverty drove them to the work force
    • Many migrated to cities to work as cooks, laundresses, scrubwomen, and maids
  • By 1870, nearly 70% of women employed were servants
women in higher education
Women in Higher Education
  • Many of the women who became active in public life in the late 19th century had attended the new women’s colleges
    • Vassar College—faculty included 8 men, and 22 women—accepted its first students in 1865
    • Smith and Wellesley Colleges followed in 1875
    • Columbia, Brown, and Harvard Colleges refused to admit women, but each established a separate university for women
women in higher education1
Women in Higher Education
  • By the late 19th century, marriage was not the only alternative for women
  • They either went to school or joined the work force
    • Almost half of college-educated women in the late 19th century did not marry
    • Their skills were applied to society and reforms
smith college
Smith College

Wellesley College

women and reform
Women and Reform
  • Because women were not allowed to vote, they often worked to reform from within the home
  • Their “social housekeeping” targeted workplace reform, housing reform, educational improvement and food and drug laws
women and reform1
Women and Reform
  • 1896—African-American women founded the national Association of Colored Women (NACW) by merging two earlier organizations
    • They managed nurseries, reading rooms and kindergartens
    • Josephine Ruffin identified the missiion as “the moral education of the race with which we are identified”
women and reform2
Women and Reform
  • After the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, women split over the 14th and 15th amendments, which granted equal rights including the right to vote to African American men, but excluded women
  • Susan B. Anthony—women’s suffrage proponent—stated “I would sooner cut off my right hand than ask the ballot for the black man and not for women”
  • In 1869, Anthony and Stanton founded the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) which united with another group to become the National American Women Suffrage Assoc. (NAWSA)
three part strategy for suffrage
Three Part Strategy for Suffrage
  • Suffragist leaders worked a three part strategy
    • First, they tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote—they were victorious in the territory of Wyoming in 1869
    • Second, women pursued court cases to test the 14th amendment
      • In 1871-72, Anthony and others attempted to vote 150 times in 10 states and D.C.
      • The Supreme Court ruled in 1875, that women were indeed citizens—but then denied that citizenship automatically allowed the right to vote
three part strategy for suffrage1
Three Part Strategy for Suffrage
  • Third, women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote
    • Stanton succeeded in having the amendment introduced in California, but it was killed
    • For 41 years, women lobbied for an amendment, but every time voted down
a rough riding president
A Rough Riding President
  • Theodore Roosevelt was elected V.P. in 1900 with McKinley as President
  • He was nominated by Political Bosses who could not control him—it was a plot to get him out of New York
  • When McKinley was shot, he became the youngest president in U.S. history at 42 years old
a rough riding president1
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt was born in 1858 to a wealthy family in N.Y.
  • He suffered from asthma, but overcame great physical feats
    • He mastered marksmanship, horseback riding
    • He boxed and wrestled at Harvard
  • He got into politics at an early age
    • Served three terms in the New York State Assembly
    • New York City’s police commissioner
    • Assistant secretary to the Navy
a rough riding president2
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt advocated for war against Spain in 1898
    • His famous “Rough Riders” won public acclaim for its role in the battle at San Juan Hill, Cuba
  • Roosevelt returned a hero and was elected Governor of New York and then V.P.
a rough riding president3
A Rough Riding President
  • When he became president, he dominated the news with his exploits
    • He was blinded in the left eye while boxing
    • Galloped 100 miles on horseback just to prove it was possible
  • He used his popularity to push his programs through
  • His leadership and publicity campaigns helped shape the modern presidency
  • He became the model by which new presidents would be measured
a rough riding president4
A Rough Riding President
  • Roosevelt felt that the federal government should assume control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems
  • He saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” from which he could influence the news media and shape legislation
  • If big business victimized workers, he saw to it that the people received a “Square Deal”
    • This term is used to describe various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt Administration
trustbusting
Trustbusting
  • By 1900, trusts controlled about 4/5th’s of the industries in the U.S.
  • Some trusts, like the Standard Oil Co. had earned bad reputations for their unfair business practices
  • Many had created monopolies and then took advantage of the lack of competitions to drive prices up
    • The Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not help due to the vague language of the bill
trustbusting1
Trustbusting
  • Roosevelt made headlines when he ordered the Justice Dept. to sue the Northern Securities Co. for their monopoly over northwestern railroads
  • In 1904, the Supreme Court dissolved the company
  • Although, the administration filed 44 antitrust suits, winning a number of them and breaking up some trusts, it was unable to slow the merger movement of business
1902 coal strike
1902 Coal Strike
  • 140,000 coal miners in PA
  • Demanded a 20% pay raise & a 9 hour workday & the right to form a Union
  • Mine operators refused—5 months later, Roosevelt called both sides to the White House
  • It was settled, due to Roosevelt’s threat to take over the mines—they would both submit their differences to an arbitration commission—a third party that would mediate the dispute
1902 coal strike1
1902 Coal Strike
  • 1903—the commission had decided:
    • The miners won a 10% pay hike & a 9 hour workday
    • No Union
    • And no right to strike within the next 3 years
  • Roosevelt set a new precedent
    • From then on, whenever a strike threatened the welfare of the people, the federal government intervened
  • He also proved disputes could be handled in an orderly way
railroad regulation
Railroad Regulation
  • 1887-Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate railroads
    • The ICC was set up to enforce the law but had little power
  • With Roosevelt’s urging, Congress passed the Elkins Act of 1903 which made it illegal for railroad officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular railroads
    • It also stated that railroads could not change set rates without notifying the public
railroad regulation1
Railroad Regulation
  • The Hepburn Act of 1906 reduced the number of free passes used for bribery
  • It also gave the ICC power to set maximum railroad rates
  • It’s passage boosted the government’s power to regulate railroads
regulating food and drug
Regulating Food and Drug
  • Following Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, Roosevelt responded by appointing a committee to investigate the meat packing plants
  • In 1906, roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act
    • Dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created the program of federal meat inspection that was in use until new techniques were founded in 1920
pure food and drug act
Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Before advertising regulations, manufacturers claimed that their products accomplished everything from curing cancer to growing hair
  • Popular children’s medicines contained opium, cocaine, or alcohol
  • Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley, chief chemist for Dept. of Agriculture, criticized manufacturers for using harsh preservatives
  • 1906-Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, which halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth labeling
    • It did not ban harmful products outright, but did prove that if given correct information, people will act wisely
conservation measures
Conservation Measures
  • Despite the establishment of the U.S. Forest Bureau in 1887 and withdrawal from public sale 45 million acres of forest for reserve
  • In the late 19th century, Americans exploited their natural environment
  • Pioneer farmers leveled forests and plowed up prairies
  • Ranchers allowed their cattle to overgraze the plains
  • Coal companies cluttered the land with refuse from mines
  • Lumber companies ignored the effect of logging operations on flood control and neglected to plant trees to replace the ones lost
conservation measures1
Conservation Measures
  • Cities also dumped untreated sewage and industrial wastes into rivers, poisoning the streams and creating health hazards
conservation measures2
Conservation Measures
  • Roosevelt condemned the view that U.S. resources were endless
  • He made conservation the primary concern
  • John Muir persuaded the president to set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves
  • He also set aside 1.5 million acres of water-power sites and another 80 million that experts from the U.S. Geological Survey would explore for mineral and water resources
conservation measures3
Conservation Measures
  • Roosevelt established over 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parks
  • In 1905, Roosevelt named Gifford Pinchot as head of the U.S. Forest Service
    • He was a professional conservationist who advised Roosevelt to conserve forest and grazing lands by keeping large tracts of federal land exempt from private sale
  • Roosevelt and Pinchot did not share the same views as Muir—who said the wilderness should be completely preserved
  • They viewed conservationism as preserving some wilderness while others would be used for the common good
conservation measures4
Conservation Measures
  • Under the National Reclamation Act of 1902, money from the sale of public lands in the West funded large-scale irrigation projects, such as the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and the Shoshone Dam in Wyoming
  • The Newlands Act (National Reclamation Act of 1902) established the precedent that the federal government would manage the precious water resources of the West
roosevelt and civil rights
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Roosevelt’s concern for Civil Rights did not match his concern for conservation
  • Roosevelt’s father was from the North, but his mother was the epitome of a southern belle
  • Like other progressives, Roosevelt failed to support Civil Rights for African-Americans—he did support individuals though
    • He appointed an African-American as head of the Charleston, SC customhouse
    • As a symbolic gesture, he invited Booker T. Washington to the White House
  • However, he did dismiss an entire black regiment accused with conspiracy of protecting others charged with murder in Brownsville, Texas
roosevelt and civil rights1
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Washington’s visit to the White House was criticized by Du Bois—”for his accommodation of segregationists and for blaming black poverty on blacks and urging them to accept discrimination”
  • Du Bois and other advocates held a Civil Rights Conference at Niagara Falls in 1905
  • In 1909, African-Americans and whites joined together to form the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
  • The NAACP aimed for nothing less than full equality among the races
    • That goal found little support in the Progressive Movement
  • The two presidents that followed also did nothing to advance racial equality
taft becomes president
Taft Becomes President
  • William Howard Taft became president in 1904 after being handpicked by Roosevelt
  • William Jennings Bryan was the opponent
    • “Vote for Taft this time. Vote for Bryan any time”
  • Republicans had an easy victory
taft stumbles
Taft Stumbles
  • Taft pursued a cautiously progressive agenda
  • He sought to consolidate rather than expand Roosevelt’s reforms
  • He received little credit for his accomplishments
  • His legal victories, such as busting 90 trusts in a four-year term, did not boost his popularity
  • Taft hesitated to use the presidency as a bully pulpit
payne aldrich tariff
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • Taft campaigned on lower tariffs
  • The house proposed the Payne bill that lowered tariffs
  • The senate proposed the Aldrich bill that made fewer cuts and increased many rates
  • Amid cries of betrayal from the progressive wing, Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
    • It only moderated the high rates of the Aldrich Bill
  • He made his difficulties worse when he stated it was “the best bill the Republican party ever passed”
disputing public lands
Disputing Public Lands
  • Taft angered conservationists by appointing Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior
  • Ballinger disapproved of conservation of land in the West, and removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserved list
  • When an employee was fired for speaking out, he wrote a muckraking article against Ballinger
disputing public lands1
Disputing Public Lands
  • After the article was published and Pinchot had spoken out against Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot from the U.S. Forest Service
problems within the party
Problems Within the Party
  • Republican conservatives and progressives split over Taft’s support of the political boss Joseph Cannon—Speaker of the House
  • “Uncle Joe” often disregarded seniority in filling committee slots and disregarded or weakened progressive bills
  • Reform minded Republicans decided that their only alternative was to strip Cannon of his power
  • With the help of democrats, they succeeded in March 1910
  • They created a resolution that called for the entire House to elect the Committee on Rules without the Speaker
problems within the party1
Problems Within the Party
  • By midterm elections of 1910, the voters voiced their opinions over the high cost of living, which they blamed on the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • They also believed Taft to be against conservation
  • The Republicans lost the elections and the Democrats had gained control for the first time in 18 years
bull moose party
Bull Moose Party
  • While Taft was running the country, Roosevelt was on Safari in Africa
  • He returned to a heroes welcome and gave a speech proposing “New Nationalism”—the federal government would exert its power over the welfare of the people
  • By 1912, displeased with Taft, he decided to run for president again
  • The primaries showed Roosevelt the favorite, but Taft had the advantage of being the incumbant
bull moose party1
Bull Moose Party
  • Taft delegates moved to make Roosevelt’s delegates Taft delegates
  • TR’s delegates would have none of that and they formed a new party, the Progressive Party
  • They would soon be known as the Bull Moose Party after Roosevelt’s boast that he was as strong as a bull moose
  • The party’s platform called for
    • the direct election of senators,
    • adoption of initiative, referendum, and recall,
    • woman suffrage,
    • workmen’s compensation,
    • an eight hour work-day,
    • a minimum wage for women,
    • A federal law agains tchild labor,
    • And a federal trade commission to regulate business
bull moose party2
Bull Moose Party
  • The split in Republican ranks handed the Democrats their first real chance at the White House since the election of Grover Cleveland in 1892
  • Woodrow Wilson, a reform governor, became their candidate in 1912
  • He went on to win the election
democrats in the white house
Democrats in the White House
  • The election had offered voters choices:
    • Wilson’s New Freedom
    • Taft’s conservatism
    • Roosevelt’s progressivism
    • Eugene V. Debs and the Socialist Party
  • Both Roosevelt and Wilson supported stronger government, but in different ways
  • Debs was against capitalism
  • Taft was in the middle of the road
democrats in the white house1
Democrats in the White House
  • Winning only 42% of the vote, Wilson won an overwhelming majority of electoral votes
  • With his election he could claim a mandate to break up trusts and expand the government’s role in social reform
wilson wins financial reforms
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
  • Wilson claimed progressive ideals, but had a different approach than Roosevelt
wilson s background
Wilson’s Background
  • Wilson spent his youth in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The son of a Presbyterian minister, he received a strict upbringing
  • He worked as a lawyer, a history professor, and later as president of Princeton University
  • In 1910, he became governor of New Jersey
  • As president, he moved to enact his “New Freedom”
two key antitrust measures
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • During Wilson’s administration, Congress enacted two anti-trust measures
    • Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 sought to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
      • Prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly; if a company violated the law, its officers could be prosecuted
      • The Clayton Act also specified that labor unions and farm organizations not only had a right to exist but also would no longer be subject to antitrust laws
two key antitrust measures1
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • The Clayton Antitrust Act made strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, and the collection of strike benefits became legal
  • Injunctions against strikers were prohibited unless damage was incurred
  • Samuel Gompers (AFL) called it a Magna Carta of Labor
two key antitrust measures2
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • The second major antitrust measure, the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, set up the Federal Trade Commission
  • The “watchdog” agency was given the power to investigate possible violations of regulatory statutes, to require periodic reports from corporations, and to put an end to a number of unfair business practices
two key antitrust measures3
Two Key Antitrust Measures
  • Under Wilson, the FTC administered almost 400 cease and desist orders to companies engaged in illegal activity
a new tax system
A New Tax System
  • In an effort to curb big business, Wilson worked to lower tariff rates
  • Wilson lobbied hard in 1913 for the Underwood Act, which would reduce tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War
  • Business lobbied to block tariff reductions
  • Because of the new president’s use of the bully pulpit, the Senate voted to cut tariff rates even more deeply than the House had done
federal income tax
Federal Income Tax
  • With lower tariffs, the government needed to make up the revenue that was lost
  • The 16th amendment, ratified in 1913, legalized a graduated federal income tax, which provided revenue by taxing individual earnings and corporate profits
  • The Graduated Tax—taxed higher incomes more than incomes in the bottom bracket
federal reserve system
Federal Reserve System
  • Wilson, next, turned his attention to financial reform
  • The nation needed a way to strengthen the banks and adjust to the amount of money in circulation
  • the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 divided the nation into 12 districts and established a regional central bank in each district—these banks then served the other banks
federal reserve banks
Federal Reserve Banks
  • The new banks could issue new paper currency in emergency situations, and member banks could use the new currency to make loans to their customers
  • By 1923, 70% of the nation’s banking resources were part of the Federal Reserve System
local suffrage battles
Local Suffrage Battles
  • The suffrage movement was given new strength by growing numbers of college-educated women
  • Two Massachusetts organizations, the Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government and the College Equal Suffrage league, used door-to-door campaigns to reach potential supporters
  • Founded by Maud Wood Park, the Boston group spread the message to the poor and working-class women
local suffrage battles1
Local Suffrage Battles
  • Trolley cars would stop at each stop where crowds would gather to hear a woman speaking in public
  • Many wealthy young women who visited Europe as part of their education became involved in the suffrage movement in Britain
  • Inspired by British acts, American women returned to the U.S. armed with similar approaches in their own campaigns for suffrage
catt and the national government
Catt and the National Government
  • Carrie Chapman Catt became the president of NAWSA and served from 1900-04 and resumed the presidency in 1915
  • When she returned she concentrated on five tactics:
    • Painstaking organization
    • Close ties between local, state, and national workers
    • Establishing a wide base of support
    • Cautious lobbying
    • Gracious ladylike behavior
catt and the national government1
Catt and the National Government
  • Although suffragists saw victories, the greater number of failures led some to radical tactics
  • Lucy Burns and Alice Paul formed their own more radical organization, the Congressional Union, and its successor the National Woman’s Party
  • They pressured the federal government to pass a suffrage amendment, and by 1917 Paul had organized her followers to mount a round-the-clock picket line around the White House
    • Picketers were arrested, jailed, and even force-fed when they attempted a hunger strike
catt and the national government2
Catt and the National Government
  • The 19th amendment was ratified in 1920 granting women the right to vote—72 years after women had first convened and demanded the vote at the Seneca Falls convention in 1848
wilson and civil rights
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • Wilson retreated from Civil Rights issues
  • During the campaign, he won support of the NAACP’s black intellectuals and white liberals by promising to treat blacks equally and to speak out against lynching
  • Wilson opposed federal anti-lynching legislation, arguing that these crimes fell under state jurisdiction
wilson and civil rights1
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • Segregation continued under Wilson’s administration
  • Wilson appointed to his cabinet fellow white Southerners who extended segregation
  • The NAACP felt betrayed
  • On November 12, 1914, the president’s reception of an African-American delegation brought the confrontation to a bitter climax
    • William Trotter, editor-in-chief of the Guardian, an African-American Boston newspaper, let the delegation
    • Trotter complained that African Americans from 38 states had asked the president to reverse the segregation of government employees, but that segregation had since increased
wilson and civil rights2
Wilson and Civil Rights
  • An angry Trotter shook his finger at the president to emphasize a point, the furious Wilson demanded that the delegation leave
  • Wilson’s refusal to extend civil rights to African Americans pointed to the limits of progressivism under his administration
the twilight of progressivism
The Twilight of Progressivism
  • The outbreak of war in 1914 demanded America’s involvement
  • WWI would dominate Wilson’s presidency, and the Progressive Era would come to an end
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