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The Greek City-States c.2000 B.C.- 404 B.C. Sea and Land. Geography of Greece Short mountain ranges cut up the mainland Mountains kept villages apart and allowed invaders from the North Rivers are short No large kingdoms led to formation of city-states. Early Greek Peoples. Minoans

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The Greek City-States c.2000 B.C.- 404 B.C.

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The greek city states c 2000 b c 404 b c

The Greek City-Statesc.2000 B.C.- 404 B.C.


Sea and land

Sea and Land

  • Geography of Greece

    • Short mountain ranges cut up the mainland

    • Mountains kept villages apart and allowed invaders from the North

    • Rivers are short

  • No large kingdoms led to formation of city-states


Early greek peoples

Early Greek Peoples

  • Minoans

    • Earliest Greek civilization

    • Palace and Homes of nobles had running water

    • Artists covered walls with frescoes

    • Minoans were sailors/traders

Crete King Minos


Early greek peoples1

Early Greek Peoples

  • The Mycenaean

    • Controlled Greece form 1600 BC to 1200 BC

    • Warring people that formed clans

    • Built fort like cities

    • Adopted the Minoan form of writing called Linear B


City states of greece

City States of Greece

  • Covered a small area of land

  • Most were slaves/non citizens

    • Only free adult males had citizenship rights

  • Built forts on an acropolis

  • Each city state had an agora

  • Each polis form its own government and laws

  • Common Things

    • Spoke same language

    • Religious ideas, characteristics, and social patterns


Government and society

Governmentand Society

  • Objectives:

    • Explain Importance of Homer’s Work

    • Identify major religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Greeks

    • Describe changes that occurred in the governments of the Greek city states


Greek culture

Greek Culture

  • Traveling poets sang or recited folk songs, ballads, or epics

  • Homer- blind poet who wrote the epics Iliad and the Odyssey

    • Iliad tells of the Legend of the Trojan War

    • The Odyssey tells what happened after the Trojan war


Religious beliefs

Religious Beliefs

  • 3 things for Religion

    • To explain nature, emotions that causes people to lose self-control, and certain benefits

  • Believed spirits went to gray, gloomy underworld ruled by Hades

  • Created Myths about gods, goddesses, and heroes

  • Oracles- where gods spoke through priests


The greek city states c 2000 b c 404 b c

Zeus

  • King of gods

  • God of the Sky and Rain

  • Weapon of choice is his coveted Thunderbolt


Athena

Athena

  • Protector of Wisdom and Womanly Goodness


Apollo

Apollo

  • God of light, music, and poetry


Dionysus

Dionysus

  • God of Fertility and Wine


Olympics

Olympics

  • Greeks showed strength and bravery to the gods in athletic events

  • Olympic Games

    • Held every 4 years to honor Zeus

    • Only men competed

    • Foot races, javelin and disc throw, and wrestling

    • First games held in 776 B.C.


Greek government

Greek Government

  • City-state originated as small kingdoms

  • Aristocrats would eventually represent each noble city state

  • Greek city states that were controlled by nobles were known as Aristocracies

    • Acted as judges, determined the laws & punishment

    • Controlled religion


Greek government1

Greek Government

  • Hoplite

    • Heavy infantry who carried long spears fought in close formations

    • Chariots and Calvary was no match for the Hoplites

    • Became important to the defense of the city-state


Greek government2

Greek Government

  • Tyrants

    • Illegally took power but with people’s support

    • Ruled well, at first, then became unjust

  • Popular Government

    • People can and should rule themselves

  • Democracy

    • Government in which citizens take part

    • Full political rights to small part of population

    • Women and slaves lacked political rights


Sparta and athens

Sparta and Athens

  • Objectives:

    • Analyze the society of Sparta

    • Explain the development of democracy in Athens


Sparta the military ideal

Sparta: The Military Ideal

  • Helots- Conquered people of the Peloponnesus

  • Spartan Society

    • Equals- descendants of the invaders, controlled the city-state, and equal land among citizens.

    • Half-citizens- free, paid taxes, and served in the army but had no political power

    • Helots- slaves of the Spartans


Sparta government

Sparta Government

  • Two Kings head of Government

    • One King led army

    • Other king took care of the home matters

  • Council of Elders

    • 28 male citizens over the age of 60

  • Assembly of all males over 30 years old

    • Elected 5 ephors to make sure the King stayed within the law


Sparta military society

Sparta Military Society

  • Every adult male was part of the military

  • Age 7

    • Lived in military barracks

  • Age 18-20

    • Trained for war

  • Age 20

    • Began military service

  • Remained available for military service until 60 years of age


Athens society

Athens Society

  • Citizens formed the top group

    • Only Athenian born men had political rights

  • Metics

    • Non citizens, free, paid taxes

    • Could not take part in government

  • Slaves

    • People captured during war

    • Athenians considered slavery natural and necessary


Athens government

Athens Government

  • Only citizens who owned land held office

  • All adult males meet in assemblies

    • Elect 9 archons

  • Draco- created Athens 1st written law code around 621 B.C.


Athens government1

Athens Government

  • Solon

    • Settled disputes between creditors and debtors

    • Outlawed slavery for debt

  • Solon divided all citizens into four groups based on wealth

  • Peisistratus

    • Ruled Athens as a tyrant from 546-527 B.C.


Athens democracy

Athens Democracy

  • Cleisthenes

    • Turned Athens into a democracy

    • Cleisthenes form of government is known as direct democracy

  • Athens 10 tribes

    • Each tribe chose 50 men to form Council of 500

    • Members served for 1 year and could not serve twice

    • Council proposed laws to assembly

    • Assembly had final authority


Daily life in athens

Daily Life in Athens

  • Athenian Economy

    • Terracing helped farmers plant on hillsides

    • Colonies were established by Athenian farmers/workers

    • Spent money on public buildings

    • Set up colonies and traded goods in the Mediterranean Sea


Home and family

Home and Family

  • Lived in simple homes

  • Marriages were arranged

    • Purpose of marriage was to have children

  • Women considered inferior

    • Could not own or inherit property

  • Boys cared for by a Pedagogue


Education and military

Education and Military

  • Young Athenian boys studied reading, writing, grammar, poetry, music, and gymnastics

  • Sophists taught older boys government, math, ethics and rhetoric

  • At 18, Athenian males received 1 year of military training


The expansion of greece

The Expansion of Greece

  • Objectives:

    • Explain how the Persian Wars began and what the results of those wars were

    • Analyze the effects of Pericles's leadership in Athens

    • Explain how the Peloponnesian War began and its result


The persian wars

The Persian Wars

  • Series of conflicts betweens Greece and Persia that lasted from 500 B.C. to 479 B.C.

  • Battle of Marathon

    • Athenians defeated the Persians, ending the Persian Wars

  • Battle of Thermopylae

    • 300 Spartans fought bravely against the Persians

    • Give other Greek city-states time to prepare to fight


The persian wars1

The Persian Wars

  • Themistocles

    • Athenian leader who helped to defeat the Persian navy by tricking Xerxes at the Salamis Straight

    • Persian Navy was larger than the Greek

    • Greek ships were more maneuverable

    • This ended the Persian Wars


Results of the persian war

Results of the Persian War

  • Persian War unified the Greek city-states to protect themselves

  • Athenians rebuilt and created it own empire in the Aegean Sea

  • Delian League

    • Alliance of city-states with Athens as it leader

    • Included 140 city-states, each contributed money and ships

    • Sparta feared Helot rebellion and kept troops close to home


Age of pericles 461 b c 429 b c

Age of Pericles461 B.C.- 429 B.C.

  • Leader of Athens

  • Great statesman and General

  • Built Parthenon and Acropolis

  • Athens reached its peak power and wealth

  • Made Athens the cultural and political capital of Greece


Athens democracy1

Athens Democracy

  • All male citizens, except the lower class, could hold public office

  • Office holders were paid a salary

    • Chosen by lot so that no one had an advantage


Strengthening of athens

Strengthening of Athens

  • Established colonies in important or rebellious area

  • Used the Navy to keep the Persians out of the Aegean Sea

  • Used power of Athens to ensure prosperity and stability

  • Strengthen the Delian League

    • Forced city-states to join the league

    • Athens made all decision for the league


Peloponnesian war

Peloponnesian War

  • Between Sparta and Athens

  • Reasons for War

    • Old rivalries

    • Athenian control of Delian League

    • Quarrels over trade

    • Young men eager to fight


Sparta vs athens

Sparta vs Athens

  • Sparta

    • Has the stronger Army

    • Began the fighting by invading the Attic Peninsula in 431 B.C.

    • Forced the Athens to retreat behind the walls of Athens

  • Athens

    • Has the stronger Navy

    • Brought food into the city by ships in the Aegean Sea

    • Athens plague killed Pericles


Sparta vs athens1

Sparta vs. Athens

  • War lasted 27 years

    • Punctuated by periods of truce and armed peace

  • Sparta joined forces with Persia to cut off the Athenian

    • Starving Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.

  • After War

    • Sparta attempted to control all of Greece

    • City-states continued to fight each other for years


Essay question

Essay Question

  • Compare the social classes in Spartan society with those in the Athenian society.

    • Citizens in Athens and equals in Sparta were males who could vote and own property.

    • Metics in Athens and half citizens in Sparta were free and paid taxes but could not take part in government or own land.

    • Athens’s slaves and Sparta’s helots had no political rights


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