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Chapter 4. The Central Processor and Memory. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition. Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor: executes program instructions and performs the computer’s processing actions. Integrated Circuits/Chip/Microchip: thousands or millions of transistors

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Chapter 4
Chapter 4

The Central Processor

and Memory


The central processing unit cpu definition
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)Definition

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor:

    • executes program instructions and

    • performs the computer’s processing actions.

  • Integrated Circuits/Chip/Microchip:

    • thousands or millions of transistors

    • placed on a small silicon chip.


The central processing unit cpu definition continued
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)Definition (Continued)

  • Transistor:

    • An electrical switch

    • can be in one of two states:

      • open or

      • closed.

  • Integrating:

    • The process of packing more transistors onto a single chip.


The central processing unit cpu definition continued1
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)Definition (Continued)


The central processing unit cpu control unit
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)Control Unit

  • Control Unit:

    • The part of the CPU

    • oversees and controls all computer activities

  • Instructions:

    • Low level actions to be carried out during

      • input

      • processing

      • output

      • storage

      • transmission.


The central processing unit cpu arithmetic logic unit alu

Logical Operations:

Greater Than (>)

Less Than (<)

Equal To (=)

Arithmetic Operations:

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):

    • part of the CPU

    • performs arithmetic and logical operations.


Memory definition
MemoryDefinition

  • Primary Storage

  • Primary Memory

  • Main Memory

  • Internal Memory

  • RAM:

    • Primary memory holds data temporarily,

    • as the computer executes instructions.


Memory definition continued
MemoryDefinition (Continued)


Memory memory size
MemoryMemory Size

  • Bit:

    • On or Off

    • 1 or 0

  • 2 Bits:

    • Four different values: 00, 01, 10, 11

  • 3 Bits:

    • Eight different values:

    • 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111

  • Byte:

    • 8 bits

    • 256 different values

    • Approximately 200 printable characters.


Memory memory size1
MemoryMemory Size

  • Kilobyte (KB or K):

    • 1000 bytes

    • 500 word text file  about 3-4K

  • Megabyte (MB):

    • One million bytes.

    • Bitmap 800 X 600 X 24 bits  1.4 MB

  • Gigabyte (GB):

    • One billion bytes.

  • Terabyte (TB):

    • One trillion bytes.


Memory memory size continued
MemoryMemory Size (Continued)

  • How much space?

    • Turing

      • 1,000 home directories

      • average home directory size 250 MB

    • Image

      • 2400 X 1800 resolution

      • 64,000 colors

    • Database

      • 500,000 people

      • first name

      • last name

      • phone number


Memory ram and rom

ROM

Read-only Memory

Memory is persistent even if computer is turned off

Computer BIOS is stored on ROM chip

BIOS (Basic Input Output System) need so computer can boot

RAM

Random-access Memory

Read or Write

Memory is lost when computer is turned off

Random-access  any part of the memory can be access in constant time.

MemoryRAM and ROM


Memory flash memory
MemoryFlash Memory

  • Flash Memory:

    • Read and Write

    • retains it contents even when electricity is turned off.

    • Currently used in

      • Cell phones

      • Digital Cameras

      • iPods, MP3 players

      • Key chains


Memory ram rom and flash memory
MemoryRAM, ROM and Flash Memory


Memory definition1
MemoryDefinition

  • Boot:

    • To turn on the computer system

    • let the built-in self-test run.

  • Cold Boot:

    • turned on from an off state

    • CPU invokes the ROM BIOS boot program, which runs

    • the power-up

    • self-tests and

    • loads the operating system from disk storage.

  • Warm Boot:

    • In a restart, the BIOS knows the system is already running (data is written in a specific memory location checked by the BIOS) and skips the power-on test.


Inside the system unit definition
Inside the System UnitDefinition

  • Board:

    • A hardware device onto which chips and their related circuitry are placed.

  • System Board (Mother Board):

    • The hardware unit that houses a computer’s processor, memory chips, ports, and add-in boards.


Inside the system unit processor chips
Inside the System UnitProcessor Chips

  • Microprocessor:

    • The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip.


Inside the system unit evolution of intel pentium family of microprocessors
Inside the System UnitEvolution of Intel Pentium Family of Microprocessors


Inside the system unit intel microprocessors
Inside the System UnitIntel Microprocessors

  • Intel Celeron Processors

    • Does NOT have L2 cache, i.e., expensive memory that speeds up performance

  • Intel Pentium Processors

    • The Standard

  • Intel Xeon Processors

    • Designed to work in pairs (dual processors)

  • Intel Itanium Processors

    • 64-bit processor


Inside the system unit evolution of microprocessors for macintosh computers
Inside the System UnitEvolution of Microprocessors for Macintosh Computers


Inside the system unit other microprocessor chips
Inside the System UnitOther Microprocessor Chips

  • AMD

  • Digital Equipment Corp.

  • Motorola

  • MIPS Technologies

  • Sun Microcomputers


Inside the system unit memory chips
Inside the System UnitMemory Chips

  • Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM):

    • A multiple-chip memory card inserted as a unit into a predesignated slot on a computer’s system board.

  • Installed Memory:

    • The amount of memory included by a computer’s manufacturer on its memory board.

  • Maximum Memory:

    • The most memory that a processor can hold.


Inside the system unit ports
Inside the System UnitPorts

  • Port:

    • A connector through which input/output devices can be plugged into the computer.

  • Expansion Slot:

    • A slot inside a computer that allows a user to add an additional circuit board.


Inside the system unit universal serial bus
Inside the System UnitUniversal Serial Bus

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB):

    • A general purpose port that can connect up to 128 devices, and also hot swappable,

    • meaning that devices can be plugged in or unplugged without having to shut down or reboot the system.


Inside the system unit add in boards
Inside the System UnitAdd-In Boards

  • Add-in Boards:

    • A board that can be added to a computer to customize its features and capabilities.


Inside the system unit plug and play
Inside the System UnitPlug and Play

  • Plug and Play:

    • The ability to install devices into a computer when the computer itself makes any necessary internal adjustments.


The processing sequence the machine cycle
The Processing SequenceThe Machine Cycle

  • Machine Cycle:

    • The four processing steps: fetch, decode, execute, and store.

  • Instruction Cycle (I-cycle):

    • The first two steps (fetch and decode), in which instructions are obtained and translated.

  • Execution Cycle (E-cycle):

    • The last two steps of the machine cycle (execute and store), which produce processing results.


The processing sequence the machine cycle1
The Processing SequenceThe Machine Cycle


The processing sequence registers
The Processing SequenceRegisters

  • Register:

    • temporary storage built into the processor

    • can move data and instructions more quickly than main memory can

  • Four types:

    • Storage Registers

    • Address Registers

    • Accumulators

    • General-Purpose Registers


Processor speed definition
Processor SpeedDefinition

  • Millisecond: One thousandth of a second

  • Microsecond: One millionth of a second.

  • Nanosecond: One billionth of a second.

  • Picosecond: One trillionth of a second.


Processor speed definition continued
Processor SpeedDefinition (Continued)

  • Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS):

    • The number of instructions the processor can execute per second – a measure of processor speed.

  • Megaflops:

    • Millions of floating point operations per second – a measure of how many detailed arithmetic calculations the computer can perform per second.


Processor speed determining processor speed
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed

  • Four elements:

    • System Clock

    • Bus Width

    • Word Size

    • Available Memory


Processor speed determining processor speed continued
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • System Clock: A circuit that generates electronic impulses at a fixed rate to synchronize processing activities.

    • Megahertz (MHz): Millions of electric pulses per second – a measure of a computer’s speed.

    • Gigahertz (GHz): Billions of electric pulses per second.


Processor speed determining processor speed continued1
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • Bus Width

    • Input/Output (I/O) bus: A bus (electronic circuit) that moves data into and out of the processor.

    • Data Bus: A bus that moves data between the central processor and memory.

  • Word Size

    • Word: The number of bits a computer can process at one time.


Processor speed determining processor speed continued2
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)


Processor speed determining processor speed continued3
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • Cache Memory:

    • A form of high-speed memory that acts as a temporary holding/processing cell.

  • Coprocessors:

    • A special-purpose chip mounted on a processor board; it is designed to handle common functions quickly and efficiently


Processor speed determining processor speed continued4
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • CISC:

    • Complex Instruction Set Computing

    • Intended to be an improvement

    • Complex instructions require main memory

  • RISC:

    • Reduced Instruction Set Computing

    • A return to the old way

    • Compact instructions need only registers


Processor speed determining processor speed continued5
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • Pipelining:

    • A computer starts processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction reaches its next step in the processing cycle.


Processor speed determining processor speed continued6
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)


Processor speed determining processor speed continued7
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • Sequential Processing:

    • Processing in which the execution of one instruction is followed by the execution of another.

  • Parallel Processing:

    • For computers will multiple processor

    • computer handles different parts of a program by executing instructions simultaneously.


Processor speed determining processor speed continued8
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • SIMD

    • Single Instruction/Multiple Data method

    • A parallel-processing method

    • executes the same instruction on many data values simultaneously.

  • MIMD

    • Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data method

    • A parallel-processing method

    • connects a number of processors that run different programs or parts of a program on different sets of data.


Processor speed determining processor speed continued9
Processor SpeedDetermining Processor Speed (Continued)

  • Grid Computing:

    • A process that harnesses idle time on a computer

    • uses multiple computers to provide processing for an application that needs more speed and capability


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