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LATIN AMERICA. Where is Latin America?. Find Mexico on a World Map. …and move southward. Latin America. WHY is it called Latin America?. And Spanish just about everywhere else!!!. Portuguese is spoken in Brazil. Latin is a language The two widely spoken languages are Latin-based.

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Where is latin america
Where is Latin America?

  • Find Mexico on a World Map...

…and move southward



Why is it called latin america
WHY is it called Latin America?

And Spanish just about everywhere else!!!

Portuguese is spoken in Brazil

  • Latin is a language

  • The two widely spoken languages are Latin-based

www.skokienet.org/ festival/cultures.html


What physical characteristics do we need to know
What physical characteristics do we need to know?

CLIMATE

  • In Central America and northern South America, it is TROPICAL

In northern Mexico and southern South America, it is TEMPERATE


Along with climate
Along with climate,

  • In the Southern Hemisphere:

  • Remember that SEASONS are REVERSED:desrever


…it is summer in South America (and southern Africa & Australia & Antarctica)


Weather and climate
Weather and Climate

  • Caribbean and Central America – Hurricanes

  • El Nino: cyclical climate event that involves the movement of large masses of warm water across the Pacific. Causes change in rainfall patterns.


Physical features
Physical Features

  • Mountains in Latin America:

  • Sierra Madres split along Mexico’s coasts

  • Andes along west coast of South America

  • Just like the west coast of the USA, the Andes mountains are VOLCANIC


Mountains in Latin America can be split into agricultural “zones” as you move higher up the mountain. This is called “vertical zonation”

Snow caps

Sierra Madres

Tierra Friano crops, just grazing

Tierra Templadacrops that like temperate land

ANDES MOUNTAINS: The longLatin America Maps - Due Fridayest chain and 2nd highest mountains in the world!!

Mt. Aconcagua: Tallest Mountain in the region: 23,000 ft

Tierra Calientecrops that like hot temperatures


Another look at Vertical Zonation in the Andes Mts. “zones” as you move higher up the mountain. This is called “vertical zonation”


Mountains affect on mexico city
Mountains affect on Mexico City “zones” as you move higher up the mountain. This is called “vertical zonation”

  • Higher elevation = colder temperatures for latitude

  • Very Heavily Polluted

    • Altitude contributes to amount of pollution

    • Mountains prevent pollution from leaving


But California can handle the earthquakes MUCH better because of building codes and earthquake-proof structures that are built in the states. Unfortunately, Chile, Peru, and other countries in Latin America don’t follow any type of building codes and whole villages can be wiped out in an earthquake!!!

  • Along with volcanoes, western South America and parts of Central America experience EARTHQUAKES

due to the constant motion of the Earth’s tectonic plates-

Just like in California!!


More physical features

Greater (Bigger) Antilles because of building codes and earthquake-proof structures that are built in the states. Unfortunately, Chile, Peru, and other countries in Latin America don’t follow any type of building codes and whole villages can be wiped out in an earthquake!!!

More Physical Features:

  • There are MANY islands in Latin America

  • The Caribbean Islands are called the “West Indies” or the “Greater and Lesser Antilles”

  • The Caribbean Islands are well known for their agriculture and tourism

Lesser (Smaller) Antilles


  • The because of building codes and earthquake-proof structures that are built in the states. Unfortunately, Chile, Peru, and other countries in Latin America don’t follow any type of building codes and whole villages can be wiped out in an earthquake!!!Galapagos Islands (off the west coast of Ecuador) are known for their Tortoises and other scientific studies of plants and animals.

Ga-LAP-ah-goes Islands

Does Charles Darwin ring a bell?


“Falkland Islands (Isla Malvinas) Administered by the UK (claimed by Argentina)”

  • The Falkland Islands are controlled by the United Kingdom

  • The British defeated the Argentines in the Falkland Island War of 1982

  • These islands have a HUGE military advantage because of the location to the Strait of Magellan...

  • ...esp. if the Panama Canal is blocked during wartime


Other physical chars
Other Physical Chars. (claimed by Argentina)”

Grasslands: huge, flat plains in Latin America- known for agriculture

  • The Llanos are in Venezuela; the Gran Chaco are in Paraguay; and the most famous are the Pampas in Argentina


We’re usually found in grassland ranches…like the Llanos in Venezuela

Or the Pampas of Argentina….

where the best beef cattle in the world is raised!!

Llanos

Latin American Cowboys are called Gauchos

Pampas


Unfortunately, we’re being cut down and set aflame to make room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

OUCH!!! This is called “Slash and Burn” Agriculture

What climate factor is responsible for this climate

Rainforests:

Costa Rica and Brazil~ Amazonia (in Brazil) is the largest in the world!

“Amazonia”

http://www.ran.org/info_center/about_rainforests.html


Rain forest
Rain Forest room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Average Temp = 80

  • Avg. Rainfall = 100 in

  • Found in tropics (low latitudes)

  • Thick vegetation


Location of rainforest
Location of Rainforest room for interior farmland and construction!!!!


Structure of a rainforest
Structure of a Rainforest room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • 3 layers

    • Emergent Level: crowns of the tallest trees (90-120 ft)

    • Canopy: variety of broadleaf & evergreen trees (50 – 75 ft)

    • Understory: variety of shade tolerant trees (20-40ft)

  • All layers have vines and small plants growing on the branches


Structure of a rainforest1
Structure of a Rainforest room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Only 1 – 2 % of the sunlight reaches the ground due to the canopy

    • Eliminates small plants at ground level

  • The soil of a rainforest in almost completely void of nutrients

    • Trees get nutrients from small plants that grow and decay


Benefits of a rainforest
Benefits of a Rainforest room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Home for a multitude of species

  • Potential medicines

  • Oxygen

  • Unique human cultures: native people


Rainforest facts
Rainforest Facts room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • 25% of all prescription drugs in the US use chemicals derived from plants and animals

  • Everyday over 214,000 acres of rainforest are destroyed

  • At the current rate of destruction, 25% of the Earth’s species will be extinct by the middle of the 21st ce.


Deforestation
Deforestation room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Cutting down of trees


Reasons for deforestation
Reasons for deforestation room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Farmland

  • Mining

  • Animal grazing

  • Logging

  • Urbanization


Effects of deforestation
Effects of Deforestation room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Loss of species

  • Loss of potential medicines

  • Changes in weather patterns

  • Contributes to global warming

  • Soil erosion


Alternatives to deforestation
Alternatives to Deforestation room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Responsible companies

  • Ecotourism

  • Reforestation

  • Other means of economic development


  • Coastal Deserts room for interior farmland and construction!!!!: West Coast of South America ATACAMA DESERT in Chile

This clip art is actually “wrong” to use for the Atacama…there are cacti shown!!

One of the hottest and driest places on Earth. 1/16”/yr

THIS is more like it!!!

But why can places be so dry???

The “rain shadow” effect is part of the reason

www.uni-magdeburg.de/ abp/picturegallery.htm


RAIN SHADOW EFFECT room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

Windward side of the mountains

Leeward Side or “protected” side of the mountains

ANDES

Pacific Ocean

http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~amitp/simblob/rain-shadow.png

The Andes Mountains create rain shadows on leeward slopes and cause moisture to be blocked. That’s how we see such dry areas in Latin America. The Andes are so high that they block moisture from the ocean and create grasslands and deserts on the other side of the mountains.


Orinoco River room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

I'm the Rio de la Plata.

I’m actually not a river, but an estuary… the large water feature where fresh water from a river meets the salt water of the sea.

Rio Grande

The AMAZON!!

The largest river in the world!!

Parana River

Rivers in Latin America


Waterfalls and lakes

Angel Falls- world highest uninterrupted waterfall room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

Waterfalls and Lakes

Lake Maracaibo: extension of Caribbean Sea; rich in oil reserves

Lake Titicaca: world’s highest navigable lake

Lakes in Latin America


Natural resources
Natural Resources room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Oil found in Mexico and Venezuela

  • Gold, Silver and Copper in MX, Brazil and Chile

  • Forest Products in the Amazon


Panama canal
Panama Canal room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Physical features make it hard to travel around. Magellan first European to sail around South America. The very southern most tip is called Cape Horn and its is famous for its severe storms

  • Shorter (thousands of miles shorter), safer route created with the Panama Canal.


Impact of panama canal
Impact of Panama Canal room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Brought change to Middle America

  • 75000 workers built what is still regarded as one of the engineering wonders of the world.

  • Completed in 1914, the canal made a huge impact on world trade.


Aerial view of the canal
Aerial View of the Canal room for interior farmland and construction!!!!


The canal works with a system of locks
The canal works with a system of locks room for interior farmland and construction!!!!


Impacts of physical features
IMPACTS of Physical Features?: room for interior farmland and construction!!!!

  • Location of urbanization?

  • People settle along coasts,

  • High population growth rate?

  • YES! Arable land means more food

  • Large cities are called: MEGACITIES

  • Sao Paulo Rio Mexico City


And the MOST important factor from Latin America???

Of course!!!!

Didn’t YOU think coffee too?


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