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The World of Islam: 600-1100. Muhammad the Prophet. Muhammad, 570-632, was a merchant and caravan manager living in Mecca At the age of 40, Muhammad received a vision from Gabriel who urged him to recite Muhammad’s visions were written down in the Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam

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Presentation Transcript
muhammad the prophet
Muhammad the Prophet
  • Muhammad, 570-632, was a merchant and caravan manager living in Mecca
  • At the age of 40, Muhammad received a vision from Gabriel who urged him to recite
    • Muhammad’s visions were written down in the Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam
    • The most basic tenant of Islam is: “There is only one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet”
the teachings of islam
The Teachings of Islam
  • The message of Islam is that Muhammad is the final prophet of God, completing the legacy left to Moses and Jesus
    • Both Moses and Jesus are revered as prophets in their own right in Islam
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion centered around belief in Allah, prayer 5 times a day, observation of Ramadan, a pilgrimage to Mecca, and the giving of alms to the poor
the rapid spread of islam
The Rapid Spread of Islam
  • Muhammad conquered Mecca in 630 and made it the center of the Islamic religion
    • But his death left a problem: he had named no successor
    • Some followed Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law as caliph
  • 636: Abu Bakr defeats the Byzantine Empire and controls Syria
  • 642: Egypt and North Africa added to the Arabic Empire
  • 650: The Arabs take control of the Sassanid Empire
the battle of tours
The Battle of Tours
  • October 10, 732: Charles Martel “The Hammer” defeats the Umayyad Caliphate at Tours, France
    • Charles Martel is the grandfather of Charlemagne
  • Charles Martel stops the Islamic advance into Europe…
    • But Spain remains under Islamic control for the next 700 years
the islamic empire
The Islamic Empire
  • The Islamic Empire preserved much of the writings of the ancient Greeks, particularly Aristotle
    • Much of what we know of Aristotle’s writings come from Arabic libraries
  • The Arabic States make numerous advancements in mathematics, science, chemistry, astronomy, and medicine that will inspire the Renaissance in the 1300 and 1400’s
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