Exercise 1. Microscopy. enables one to study objects too small to be seen and examined with the naked eye an optical instrument consisting of a system of lenses that gives sharp, distinct and highly magnified images of minute objects
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1. Eyepiece/Ocular – topmost portion
2. Extension/Draw tube – Through this tube, the image is projected over a distance
3. Body tube – wide hollow cylindrical tube which provides a short distance for the image/light to pass through
4. Revolving nosepiece – attached beneath the body tube which serves as the base for one or more objectives. It can be rotated to position the appropriate objective to be used (allows convenient exchange of the objectives)
5. Objectives – small narrow tubes containing compound lenses for magnification
a. low power objective (LPO) – shortest, 10x (magnification), 5mm (working distance)
b. high power objective (HPO) – 40-43x, 0.46mm
c. oil immersion objective (OIO) – requires that oil be placed between the objective lens and the coverslip for a distinct image to form, 100x, 0.13mm
d. scanner – allows a wider area of the specimen to be viewed, 2.5x
6. Arm – curved portion connecting the body tube to the base of the microscope; this is where the microscope is held for carrying or tilting; supports the body tube and adjustment knobs; permits adjustment of the stage to a desired angle
7. Adjustment knobs – two pairs of knobs found on both sides of the arm
a. Coarse adjustment knob – larger pair; adjust or moves the body tube, together with the objectives, up and down easily. It is used to bring into focus the specimen to be observed.
b. Fine adjustment knob – smaller pair; adjusts slowly and is used to sharpen the focus
8. Inclination joint – found at the base of the arm which allows the upper portion of the microscope to be tilted
9. Stage – place where the glass slide (which contains the specimen to be observed) is placed; contains the stage clips and a hole
10. Stage clip – holds the slide in place
11. Opening/Aperture – where light passes through
12. Aperture disc – movable; connected to and beneath the stage contains a series of holes with different sizes for the regulation of the incoming light
14. Iris diaphragm – below the condenser; with a movable lever, also for regulating the incoming light
15. Mirror – found at the base of the microscope which is used to direct the light through the opening of the stage
16. Pillar – region connecting the inclination joint with the stand at the base of the microscope. Together they support and hold the microscope in a steady position
17. Base – keeps the microscope steady at any position of the stage
1. Calibration of the Ocular Micrometer mechanically designed so that the distance between the specimen and the aerial image is always constant. Slight refocusing with the aid of fine focus knob is sufficient to restore critical sharpness of the image after changing from objective to another, thus the coarse focus knob need not be operated.
OM division subtended by SM
2. Measurement of the Specimen mechanically designed so that the distance between the specimen and the aerial image is always constant. Slight refocusing with the aid of fine focus knob is sufficient to restore critical sharpness of the image after changing from objective to another, thus the coarse focus knob need not be operated.
6 CO2 + 12 H2O Light and chlorophyll---) C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2
1. Absorption of light (directly light dependent)
H2O + 2 NADP+ light---) 2 H+ + 2 NADPH + O2
2. Electron transport (directly light dependent)
3. ATP generation (directly light dependent) mechanically designed so that the distance between the specimen and the aerial image is always constant. Slight refocusing with the aid of fine focus knob is sufficient to restore critical sharpness of the image after changing from objective to another, thus the coarse focus knob need not be operated.
4. Carbon fixation (indirectly light dependent)
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + 18 ATP + 12 NADPH ---) C6H12O6 + 18 ADP + 12 NADP + 6 H+
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2
Enzymes-----) 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Energy
- At late prophase – chromosomes can be seen to consist of 2 strands known as sister chromatids which are attached together through the centromere; nuclear membrane and nucleolus are no longer visible at the end of prophase
- Chromosomes are now lined up in a single plane across the center of the cell called the metaphase plate or equatorial plane or zone
Good luck! :0) the opposite poles. They start to uncoil and lengthen. A nuclear envelope reforms about each set of chromosomes, the nucleolus reappears in each pole and cytokinesis takes place. Each daughter cell proceeds to the interphase condition and begin to carry out their physiological fnx