Chapter carbon chemistry
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 69

Chapter: Carbon Chemistry PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Table of Contents. Chapter: Carbon Chemistry. Section 1: Simple Organic Compounds. Section 2: Other Organic Compounds. Section 3: Biological Compounds. Simple Organic Compounds. 1. Organic Compounds. Carbon’s ability to bond easily and form compounds is the basis of life on Earth.

Download Presentation

Chapter: Carbon Chemistry

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter carbon chemistry

Table of Contents

Chapter: Carbon Chemistry

Section 1: Simple Organic Compounds

Section 2: Other Organic Compounds

Section 3: Biological Compounds


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Organic Compounds

  • Carbon’s ability to bond easily and form compounds is the basis of life on Earth.

  • A carbon atom has four electrons in its outer energy level, so it can form four covalent bonds with as many as four other atoms.

  • One of carbon’s most frequent partners in forming covalent bonds is hydrogen.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Organic Compounds

  • Substances can be classified into two groups those derived from living things and those derived from nonliving things.

  • Most of the substances associated with living things contain carbon and hydrogen.

  • Scientists use the termorganic compoundfor most compounds that contain carbon.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms is called ahydrocarbon.

  • The simplest hydrocarbon is methane.

  • Methane consists of a single carbon atom covalently bonded to four hydrogen atoms.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • This figure shows a model of the methane molecule and its structural formula.

  • In a structural formula, the line between one atom and another atom represents a pair of electrons shared between the two atoms.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • Here’s a way to visualize how larger hydrocarbons are built up.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • When all the bonds in a hydrocarbon are single bonds, the molecule is called asaturated hydrocarbon.

  • No additional hydrogen atoms can be added to the molecule.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Propane, with three carbon atoms, is the third member of the series of saturated hydrocarbons.

  • Butane has four carbon atoms.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are named with an –ane ending. Another name for these hydrocarbons is alkanes.

  • Page 411


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Carbon can form long chains that contain hundreds or even thousands of carbon atoms.

  • These extremely long chains make up many of the plastics that you use.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds are calledunsaturated hydrocarbons.

  • Ethene, the simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon, has two carbon atoms joined by a double bond.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  • Unsaturated compounds with at least one double bond are named with an –ene ending.

  • These compounds are called alkenes.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Triple Bonds

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons also can have triple bonds, as in the structure of ethyne (EH thine).

  • Ethyne, is a gas used for welding because it produces high heat as it burns.

  • These unsaturated compounds are called alkynes.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

  • Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements, or structures, are calledisomers

(I suh murz).

Page 412

1

Hydrocarbon Isomers


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbon Isomers

  • Two isomers, butane and isobutane, have different chemical and physical properties because of their different structures.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons in Rings

  • Some molecules contain rings.

  • The carbon atoms of hexane bond together to form a closed ring containing six carbons.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons in Rings

  • The prefix cylco- in their names tells you that the molecules are cyclic or ring shaped.

  • Many natural substances such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose are ring structures.

  • Ring structures can contain one or more double bonds.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

1

Question 1

A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon is known as what?

A. amino acid

B. hydrocarbon

B. isomer

C. organic compound

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

1

Answer

The answer is B. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, a primary component of natural gas.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

1

Question 2

What is a methyl group?

Answer

A methyl group is a fragment of a methane molecule. In particular, it’s one that can bond with another methyl group to build up a larger hydrocarbon.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

1

Question 3

When all the bonds in a hydrocarbon are single bonds, the molecule is called a(n) _______.

A. isomer

B. organic compound

C. saturated hydrocarbon

D. unsaturated hydrocarbon

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

1

Answer

The answer is C. You can remember this by thinking that the term saturated means “completely full”; no more hydrogen atoms can be added on to the molecule.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Substituted Hydrocarbons

  • Chemists change hydrocarbons to make compounds called substituted hydrocarbons.

  • To make a substituted hydrocarbon, one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by atoms such as halogens or by groups of atoms.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Substituted Hydrocarbons

  • Such changes result in compounds with chemical properties different from the original hydrocarbon.

  • For example, when one or more chlorine atoms are added to methane in place of hydrogens, new compounds are formed.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • Groups of atoms also can be added to hydrocarbons to make different compounds.

  • Thehydroxyl (hi DROK sul) groupis made up of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom joined by a covalent bond. -OH


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • An alcohol is formed when a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.

  • This figure shows the formation of the alcohol methanol.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • Larger alcohol molecules are formed by adding more carbon atoms to the chain.

  • The table lists three alcohols with their structures and uses.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Acarboxylic (car BOK sul) groupconsists of a carbon atom that has a double bond with one oxygen atom and a single bond with a hydroxyl group.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Its formula is –COOH.

  • When a carboxyl group is substituted in a hydrocarbon, the substance formed is called a carboxylic acid.

  • The simplest carboxylic acid is formic acid. It is found in bee venom.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Many carboxylic acids occur in foods.

  • Citric acid is found in citrus fruits such as oranges and grapefruit.

  • Lactic acid is present in sour milk.

  • Acetic acid dissolved in watervinegaroften is used in salad dressings.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Amines

  • Amines are a group of substituted hydrocarbons formed when an amino group replaces a hydrogen atom.

  • Anamino (uh ME noh) groupis a nitrogen atom joined by a covalent bond to two hydrogen atoms.

  • It has the formula –NH2.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

Amino Acids

  • When both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl acid group (-COOH) replace hydrogens on the same carbon atom in a molecule, a type of compound known as anamino acidis formed.

  • Amino acids are essential for human life.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

The Building Blocks of Protein

  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are an important class of biological molecules needed by living cells.

  • Twenty different amino acids bond in different combinations to form the variety of proteins that are needed in the human body.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Other Organic Compounds

2

The Building Blocks of Protein

  • Glycine is the simplest amino acid.

  • It is a methane molecule in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by an amine group and another has been replaced by a carboxyl group.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

2

Question 1

You can take a hydrocarbon and create a compound with differing properties by replacing some of the hydrogen atoms with halogens. The result will be a _______.

Answer

The result is a substituted hydrocarbon. You could also add on groups of new atoms.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

2

Question 2

What does this symbol stand for?

–OH

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

2

Answer

The symbol refers to a hydroxyl group.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

2

Question 3

What do you call a carbon atom that has a double bond with one oxygen atom and, at the same time, a single bond with a hydroxyl group?

A. amino group

B. carboxyl group

C. hydroxyl group

D. polymer

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

2

Answer

The answer is B. Its formula is -COOH.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • A polymeris a molecule made up of many small organic molecules linked together with covalent bonds to form a long chain.

  • The small, organic molecules that link together to form polymers are calledmonomers.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • Polymers produced by living organisms are called natural polymers.

  • Polymers made in a laboratory are called synthetic polymers.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • The unsaturated hydrocarbon ethylene, C2H4, is the monomer of a common polymer used often in plastic bags.

  • The monomers are bonded together in a chemical reaction calledpolymerization(puh lih muh ruh ZAY shun).


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • The carbon atoms that were joined by the double bond each have an electron to share with another carbon in another molecule of ethylene.

  • The process goes on until a long molecule is formed.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • Aproteinis a polymer that consists of a chain of individual amino acids linked together.

  • Your body cannot function properly without them.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • The various functions in your body are performed by different proteins.

  • Your body makes many of these proteins by assembling 20 amino acids in different ways.

  • Eight of the amino acids that are needed to make proteins cannot be produced by your body.

  • These amino acids, which are called essential amino acids, must come from the food you eat.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • The process by which your body converts amino acids to proteins is shown.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Carbohydrates

  • A carbohydrateis an organic compound that contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in a ratio of two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.

  • The different types of carbohydrates are divided into groupssugars, starches, and cellulose.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Carbohydrates

  • Glucose and fructose are simple six-carbon carbohydrates found in many fresh and packaged foods.

  • Glucose and fructose are isomers.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Sugars

  • Simple sugarsare carbohydrates containing five, six, or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Starches

  • Starchesare polymers of glucose monomers in which hundreds or even thousands of glucose molecules are joined together.

  • Starches are sources of large amounts of energy.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Other Glucose Polymers

  • Two other important polymers that are made up of glucose molecules are cellulose and glycogen.

  • Cellulose makes up the long, stiff fibers found in the walls of plant cells.

  • It is a polymer that consists of long chains of glucose units linked together.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Other Glucose Polymers

  • Glycogen is a polymer that also contains chains of glucose units, but the chains are highly branched.

  • Animals make glycogen and store it mainly in their muscles and liver as a ready source of glucose.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

  • Alipidis an organic compound that contains the same elements as carbohydrates

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

but in different proportions.

3

Lipids


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Lipids Store Energy

  • Lipids store energy in their bonds, just as carbohydrates do, but they are a more concentrated source of energy than carbohydrates.

  • If you eat more food than your body needs to supply you with the energy for usual activities, the excess energy from the food is stored by producing lipids.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Lipids Store Energy

  • The chemical reaction that produces lipids is endothermic.

  • An endothermic reaction is one in which energy is absorbed.

  • This means that energy is stored in the chemical bonds of lipids.

  • When your body needs energy, the bonds are broken and energy is released.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • Lipid molecules can be saturated or unsaturated.

  • When a lipid is saturated, the acid chains are straight because all the bonds are single bonds.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • When a lipid is unsaturated the molecule bends wherever there is a double bond.

  • This prevents the chains from packing close together.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • Doctors have observed that people who eat a diet high in saturated fatshave an increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems such as heart disease.

  • The effect of saturated fat seems to be increased blood cholesterol, which may be involved in the formation of deposits on artery walls.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • Cholesterolis a complex lipid that is present in foods that come from animals, such as meat, butter, eggs, and cheese.

  • Even if you don’t eat foods containing cholesterol, your body makes its own supply.

  • Your body needs cholesterol for building cell membranes.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • Deposits of cholesterol, called plaque, can build up on the inside walls of arteries.

  • This condition is known as atherosclerosis.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • When arteries become clogged, the flow of blood is restricted, which results in high blood pressure.

  • This, in turn, can lead to heart disease.


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

3

Question 1

A molecule composed of many smaller molecules linked into a chain with covalent bonds is called a ________.

Answer

It is called a polymer; the prefix “poly,” means “many.”

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

3

Question 2

A carbohydrate is an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and _______.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

3

Answer

The answer is oxygen. In the body, carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars that the body can use for energy.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

3

Question 3

Carbohydrates containing five, six or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring shape are known as _______.

A. amino acids

B. proteins

C. sugars

D. unsaturated carbohydrates

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Section Check

3

Answer

The answer is C. Whenever you eat a grape, you are eating carbon rings.

NC: 4.02


Chapter carbon chemistry

Help

To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow.

Click on this icon to return to the table of contents

Click on this icon to return to the previous slide

Click on this icon to move to the next slide

Click on this icon to open the resources file.

Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.


Chapter carbon chemistry

End of Chapter Summary File


  • Login