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Table of Contents. Chapter: Carbon Chemistry. Section 1: Simple Organic Compounds. Section 2: Other Organic Compounds. Section 3: Biological Compounds. Simple Organic Compounds. 1. Organic Compounds. Carbon’s ability to bond easily and form compounds is the basis of life on Earth.

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Chapter: Carbon Chemistry

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Table of Contents

Chapter: Carbon Chemistry

Section 1: Simple Organic Compounds

Section 2: Other Organic Compounds

Section 3: Biological Compounds


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Organic Compounds

  • Carbon’s ability to bond easily and form compounds is the basis of life on Earth.

  • A carbon atom has four electrons in its outer energy level, so it can form four covalent bonds with as many as four other atoms.

  • One of carbon’s most frequent partners in forming covalent bonds is hydrogen.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Organic Compounds

  • Substances can be classified into two groups those derived from living things and those derived from nonliving things.

  • Most of the substances associated with living things contain carbon and hydrogen.

  • Scientists use the termorganic compoundfor most compounds that contain carbon.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms is called ahydrocarbon.

  • The simplest hydrocarbon is methane.

  • Methane consists of a single carbon atom covalently bonded to four hydrogen atoms.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • This figure shows a model of the methane molecule and its structural formula.

  • In a structural formula, the line between one atom and another atom represents a pair of electrons shared between the two atoms.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons

  • Here’s a way to visualize how larger hydrocarbons are built up.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • When all the bonds in a hydrocarbon are single bonds, the molecule is called asaturated hydrocarbon.

  • No additional hydrogen atoms can be added to the molecule.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Propane, with three carbon atoms, is the third member of the series of saturated hydrocarbons.

  • Butane has four carbon atoms.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are named with an –ane ending. Another name for these hydrocarbons is alkanes.

  • Page 411


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • Carbon can form long chains that contain hundreds or even thousands of carbon atoms.

  • These extremely long chains make up many of the plastics that you use.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds are calledunsaturated hydrocarbons.

  • Ethene, the simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon, has two carbon atoms joined by a double bond.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  • Unsaturated compounds with at least one double bond are named with an –ene ending.

  • These compounds are called alkenes.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Triple Bonds

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons also can have triple bonds, as in the structure of ethyne (EH thine).

  • Ethyne, is a gas used for welding because it produces high heat as it burns.

  • These unsaturated compounds are called alkynes.


Simple Organic Compounds

  • Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements, or structures, are calledisomers

(I suh murz).

Page 412

1

Hydrocarbon Isomers


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbon Isomers

  • Two isomers, butane and isobutane, have different chemical and physical properties because of their different structures.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons in Rings

  • Some molecules contain rings.

  • The carbon atoms of hexane bond together to form a closed ring containing six carbons.


Simple Organic Compounds

1

Hydrocarbons in Rings

  • The prefix cylco- in their names tells you that the molecules are cyclic or ring shaped.

  • Many natural substances such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose are ring structures.

  • Ring structures can contain one or more double bonds.


Section Check

1

Question 1

A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon is known as what?

A. amino acid

B. hydrocarbon

B. isomer

C. organic compound

NC: 4.02


Section Check

1

Answer

The answer is B. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, a primary component of natural gas.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

1

Question 2

What is a methyl group?

Answer

A methyl group is a fragment of a methane molecule. In particular, it’s one that can bond with another methyl group to build up a larger hydrocarbon.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

1

Question 3

When all the bonds in a hydrocarbon are single bonds, the molecule is called a(n) _______.

A. isomer

B. organic compound

C. saturated hydrocarbon

D. unsaturated hydrocarbon

NC: 4.02


Section Check

1

Answer

The answer is C. You can remember this by thinking that the term saturated means “completely full”; no more hydrogen atoms can be added on to the molecule.

NC: 4.02


Other Organic Compounds

2

Substituted Hydrocarbons

  • Chemists change hydrocarbons to make compounds called substituted hydrocarbons.

  • To make a substituted hydrocarbon, one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by atoms such as halogens or by groups of atoms.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Substituted Hydrocarbons

  • Such changes result in compounds with chemical properties different from the original hydrocarbon.

  • For example, when one or more chlorine atoms are added to methane in place of hydrogens, new compounds are formed.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • Groups of atoms also can be added to hydrocarbons to make different compounds.

  • Thehydroxyl (hi DROK sul) groupis made up of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom joined by a covalent bond. -OH


Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • An alcohol is formed when a hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon.

  • This figure shows the formation of the alcohol methanol.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Alcohols

  • Larger alcohol molecules are formed by adding more carbon atoms to the chain.

  • The table lists three alcohols with their structures and uses.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Acarboxylic (car BOK sul) groupconsists of a carbon atom that has a double bond with one oxygen atom and a single bond with a hydroxyl group.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Its formula is –COOH.

  • When a carboxyl group is substituted in a hydrocarbon, the substance formed is called a carboxylic acid.

  • The simplest carboxylic acid is formic acid. It is found in bee venom.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Carboxylic Acids

  • Many carboxylic acids occur in foods.

  • Citric acid is found in citrus fruits such as oranges and grapefruit.

  • Lactic acid is present in sour milk.

  • Acetic acid dissolved in watervinegaroften is used in salad dressings.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Amines

  • Amines are a group of substituted hydrocarbons formed when an amino group replaces a hydrogen atom.

  • Anamino (uh ME noh) groupis a nitrogen atom joined by a covalent bond to two hydrogen atoms.

  • It has the formula –NH2.


Other Organic Compounds

2

Amino Acids

  • When both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl acid group (-COOH) replace hydrogens on the same carbon atom in a molecule, a type of compound known as anamino acidis formed.

  • Amino acids are essential for human life.


Other Organic Compounds

2

The Building Blocks of Protein

  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, which are an important class of biological molecules needed by living cells.

  • Twenty different amino acids bond in different combinations to form the variety of proteins that are needed in the human body.


Other Organic Compounds

2

The Building Blocks of Protein

  • Glycine is the simplest amino acid.

  • It is a methane molecule in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by an amine group and another has been replaced by a carboxyl group.


Section Check

2

Question 1

You can take a hydrocarbon and create a compound with differing properties by replacing some of the hydrogen atoms with halogens. The result will be a _______.

Answer

The result is a substituted hydrocarbon. You could also add on groups of new atoms.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

2

Question 2

What does this symbol stand for?

–OH

NC: 4.02


Section Check

2

Answer

The symbol refers to a hydroxyl group.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

2

Question 3

What do you call a carbon atom that has a double bond with one oxygen atom and, at the same time, a single bond with a hydroxyl group?

A. amino group

B. carboxyl group

C. hydroxyl group

D. polymer

NC: 4.02


Section Check

2

Answer

The answer is B. Its formula is -COOH.

NC: 4.02


Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • A polymeris a molecule made up of many small organic molecules linked together with covalent bonds to form a long chain.

  • The small, organic molecules that link together to form polymers are calledmonomers.


Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • Polymers produced by living organisms are called natural polymers.

  • Polymers made in a laboratory are called synthetic polymers.


Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • The unsaturated hydrocarbon ethylene, C2H4, is the monomer of a common polymer used often in plastic bags.

  • The monomers are bonded together in a chemical reaction calledpolymerization(puh lih muh ruh ZAY shun).


Biological Compounds

3

What’s a polymer?

  • The carbon atoms that were joined by the double bond each have an electron to share with another carbon in another molecule of ethylene.

  • The process goes on until a long molecule is formed.


Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • Aproteinis a polymer that consists of a chain of individual amino acids linked together.

  • Your body cannot function properly without them.


Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • The various functions in your body are performed by different proteins.

  • Your body makes many of these proteins by assembling 20 amino acids in different ways.

  • Eight of the amino acids that are needed to make proteins cannot be produced by your body.

  • These amino acids, which are called essential amino acids, must come from the food you eat.


Biological Compounds

3

Proteins are Polymers

  • The process by which your body converts amino acids to proteins is shown.


Biological Compounds

3

Carbohydrates

  • A carbohydrateis an organic compound that contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in a ratio of two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.

  • The different types of carbohydrates are divided into groupssugars, starches, and cellulose.


Biological Compounds

3

Carbohydrates

  • Glucose and fructose are simple six-carbon carbohydrates found in many fresh and packaged foods.

  • Glucose and fructose are isomers.


Biological Compounds

3

Sugars

  • Simple sugarsare carbohydrates containing five, six, or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring.


Biological Compounds

3

Starches

  • Starchesare polymers of glucose monomers in which hundreds or even thousands of glucose molecules are joined together.

  • Starches are sources of large amounts of energy.


Biological Compounds

3

Other Glucose Polymers

  • Two other important polymers that are made up of glucose molecules are cellulose and glycogen.

  • Cellulose makes up the long, stiff fibers found in the walls of plant cells.

  • It is a polymer that consists of long chains of glucose units linked together.


Biological Compounds

3

Other Glucose Polymers

  • Glycogen is a polymer that also contains chains of glucose units, but the chains are highly branched.

  • Animals make glycogen and store it mainly in their muscles and liver as a ready source of glucose.


Biological Compounds

  • Alipidis an organic compound that contains the same elements as carbohydrates

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

but in different proportions.

3

Lipids


Biological Compounds

3

Lipids Store Energy

  • Lipids store energy in their bonds, just as carbohydrates do, but they are a more concentrated source of energy than carbohydrates.

  • If you eat more food than your body needs to supply you with the energy for usual activities, the excess energy from the food is stored by producing lipids.


Biological Compounds

3

Lipids Store Energy

  • The chemical reaction that produces lipids is endothermic.

  • An endothermic reaction is one in which energy is absorbed.

  • This means that energy is stored in the chemical bonds of lipids.

  • When your body needs energy, the bonds are broken and energy is released.


Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • Lipid molecules can be saturated or unsaturated.

  • When a lipid is saturated, the acid chains are straight because all the bonds are single bonds.


Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • When a lipid is unsaturated the molecule bends wherever there is a double bond.

  • This prevents the chains from packing close together.


Biological Compounds

3

Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

  • Doctors have observed that people who eat a diet high in saturated fatshave an increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems such as heart disease.

  • The effect of saturated fat seems to be increased blood cholesterol, which may be involved in the formation of deposits on artery walls.


Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • Cholesterolis a complex lipid that is present in foods that come from animals, such as meat, butter, eggs, and cheese.

  • Even if you don’t eat foods containing cholesterol, your body makes its own supply.

  • Your body needs cholesterol for building cell membranes.


Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • Deposits of cholesterol, called plaque, can build up on the inside walls of arteries.

  • This condition is known as atherosclerosis.


Biological Compounds

3

Cholesterol

  • When arteries become clogged, the flow of blood is restricted, which results in high blood pressure.

  • This, in turn, can lead to heart disease.


Section Check

3

Question 1

A molecule composed of many smaller molecules linked into a chain with covalent bonds is called a ________.

Answer

It is called a polymer; the prefix “poly,” means “many.”

NC: 4.02


Section Check

3

Question 2

A carbohydrate is an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and _______.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

3

Answer

The answer is oxygen. In the body, carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars that the body can use for energy.

NC: 4.02


Section Check

3

Question 3

Carbohydrates containing five, six or seven carbon atoms arranged in a ring shape are known as _______.

A. amino acids

B. proteins

C. sugars

D. unsaturated carbohydrates

NC: 4.02


Section Check

3

Answer

The answer is C. Whenever you eat a grape, you are eating carbon rings.

NC: 4.02


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