Chapter7 Phonemic Analysis . PHONOLOGY (Lane 335). What is Phonology?. It’s a field of linguistics which studies the distribution of sounds in a language as well as the interaction between those different sounds. What is Phonology?. Phonology tackles the following questions: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)
It’s a field of linguistics which studies the distribution of sounds in a language as well as the interaction between those different sounds.
Phonology tackles the following questions:
/t/ in : top [thɒp]
Little [liɾ l]
Kitten [kiʔ n]
Hunter [hʌ nr]
1- the more concrete level which involves the physical reality of phonetics segments, the allophones represented by [ ](greater number).
2- The abstract (underlying) level which involves phonemes represented by / / (small inventory).
(interchanging the two, change the meaning of a word)
(interchanging the phones, doesn’t change the meaning of a word)
bait [bet]date [det]
lobe [lob]load [lod]
knobs [nabz]nods [nadz]
1- contrastive distribution (give different meanings= belong to different phonemes = appear in minimal pairs)
2- Free Variation (never cause a contrast in meaning = allophones of the same phoneme = no minimal pairs)
spat [spæt]pat [phæt]
spool [spul]pool [phul]
speak [spik] peek [phik]
1- underlying (phonemic, mental)
2- surface (phonetic)
- link the two levels
- show when a particular allophone should show up on the surface
A B/ X____ Y
[ŋ ] occurs only syllable-finally [brɪ ŋ]
In English: obstruent clusters have uniform voicing
Either all members of the cluster are [+ voice], or [- voice].
‘Mixed voice’ DON’T occur phonemically