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Chapter7 Phonemic Analysis
What is Phonology?. It\'s a field of linguistics which studies the distribution of sounds in a language as well as the interaction between those different sounds.. What is Phonology?. Phonology tackles the following questions:What sounds in a language are predictable?What is the phonetic context
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Chapter7 Phonemic Analysis
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PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)
What is Phonology?
It’s a field of linguistics which studies the distribution of sounds in a language as well as the interaction between those different sounds.
What is Phonology?
Phonology tackles the following questions:
What sounds in a language are predictable? What is the phonetic context that predict the occurrence of these sounds? Which sounds affect the meaning of words? Phonetics Vs Phonology Phonetics: studies how speech sounds are produced, their physical properties & how they are interpreted. Phonology: studies the organization of speech sounds in a particular language. Distinctive and Non-distinctive Sounds Distinctive (contrastive) Sounds: make a difference in meaning; e.g. /p/ & /b/ in pin, bin. Non-distinctive (non-contrastive) Sounds: Does Not make a difference in meaning; e.g. /p/ in pin & spin.
/t/ in : top [thɒp]
Little [liɾ l]
Kitten [kiʔ n]
Hunter [hʌ nr]
Phoneme and Allophone A phoneme: a class of speech sounds that are identified by a native speaker as the same sound; e.g. /t/; unpredictable A phoneme is an abstract representation & can’t be pronounced (not a speech sound) An allophone: the actual phonetic segment produced by a speaker & has been classified as belonging to some phoneme; e.g. [th]; predictable Or an allophone: the various ways that a phoneme is pronounced; e.g. [ʔ], [ɾ] Phoneme and Allophone The phonological system of a language has two levels:
1- the more concrete level which involves the physical reality of phonetics segments, the allophones represented by [ ](greater number).
2- The abstract (underlying) level which involves phonemes represented by / / (small inventory).
/p/ has 3 allophones ([p], [ph], [p̚ ]) Similar to natural sciences (H2O is realized as ice, water, & water vapor) Distribution of Speech Sounds The distribution of a phone: the set of phonetic environments in which it occurs. Contrastive Sounds: if two sounds are separate phonemes, they are contrastive
(interchanging the two, change the meaning of a word)
Non-contrastive Sounds: if two phones are allophones of the same phoneme, they are non-contrastive
(interchanging the phones, doesn’t change the meaning of a word)
Minimal Pairs A way to determine whether sounds are distinctive or not. Defined as a pair of words with different meanings which are pronounced exactly the same way except for one sound that differs. In some languages, no minimal pairs, but we can establish phonemes Near Minima Pairs ‘mission’ & ‘vision’ Example: [ti:m] and [di:m]: /t/ & /d/ are separate phonemes. [ti:m] & [ti:n] Kinds of Phonemic Distribution Overlapping Distribution: when the sets of phonetic environments in which two sounds occur are partially or completely identical.
bait [bet] date [det]
lobe [lob] load [lod]
knobs [nabz] nods [nadz]
1- contrastive distribution (give different meanings= belong to different phonemes = appear in minimal pairs)
2- Free Variation (never cause a contrast in meaning = allophones of the same phoneme = no minimal pairs)
Kinds of Phonemic Distribution Complementary Distribution (mutually exclusive, non-overlapping): when sounds DON’T occur in the same phonetic environment
spat [spæt] pat [phæt]
spool [spul] pool [phul]
speak [spik] peek [phik]
No minimal pairs for such sounds Phones in CD are allophones of a single phoneme The appearance of one allophone or the other is PREDICTABLE. Phonological Rules
Phonological Rules state that some item becomes some other item in some specific environment The common way of expressing rules:
A B/ X____ Y
A becomes ( ) B in the environment of (/) being preceded by X and followed by Y ____ represents the position of the item affected by the rule Phonological Rules Example:
[fæn]: /æ/ /æ//____/n/ Vowels in English are nasalized before any nasal stop. [+ syllabic] [+nasal]/ __ [+nasal] Choosing the Underlying Form How we decide on the representation at the phonemic level? Phonemes and their allophones SHARE some phonetic features The choice is “phonetically natural” Take the form which has the widest distribution (occurs in the largest number of environments) Phonetic naturalness & Phonological Analysis Natural means “to be expected”, “frequently found across languages” Does NOT mean “English-like” No words in English begin with onset clusters like [ps], [pn], [pt]. Clusters appear word initial in other languages like German, Greek, & French. Pattern Congruity Phonologists consider the consequences of choosing one morpheme over the other Pattern Congruity: the systematic organization of the set of phonemes and their distribution. Choosing an allophone depends on the overall patterns found in the phonological system (pattern congruity) For example:
In English: obstruent clusters have uniform voicing
Either all members of the cluster are [+ voice], or [- voice].
‘Mixed voice’ DON’T occur phonemically
Process Naturalness In choosing the underlying form, the linking processes should be considered pass [pæ s] pass you [pæʃ ju] this [ðɪ s] this year [ðɪʃjiə ] [s] appears in more environments Assimilation: [s] alveolar [+coronal, +anterior] becomes [ʃ] palato-alveolar [+coronal, - anterior] when followed by [j] palatal [+ coronal, - anterior] Phonology Phonology is concerned with the organization of the system underlying the speech sounds The phonemic level represents native speakers’ knowledge of the sound system of their language Phonology vs. phonetics Phonology: is a cognitive study deals with the representation of knowledge in the mind Phonetics: deals with the physical properties of speech sounds