School based management and academic achievement in brazil an analysis of state level data
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School-based Management and Academic Achievement in Brazil: An Analysis of State-level Data. Paul S. Losch Thesis Defense January 11, 2002. Five Major Findings. Three of these come from background research. Two come from statistical analysis.

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School based management and academic achievement in brazil an analysis of state level data

School-based Management and Academic Achievement in Brazil: An Analysis of State-level Data

Paul S. Losch

Thesis Defense

January 11, 2002


Five major findings
Five Major Findings An Analysis of State-level Data

  • Three of these come from background research.

  • Two come from statistical analysis.


1 there is a new philosophy guiding education policy in brazil today
1. There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Performance and Accountability


1 there is a new philosophy guiding education policy in brazil today1
1. There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Performance and Accountability

  • Central Standards, Local Control


1 there is a new philosophy guiding education policy in brazil today2
1. There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Performance and Accountability

  • Central Standards, Local Control

  • Changes in Law: LDB of 1996


1 there is a new philosophy guiding education policy in brazil today3
1. There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Performance and Accountability

  • Central Standards, Local Control

  • Changes in Law: LDB of 1996

  • Changes in Practice: 1980s to date






2 educational inequalities persist in brazil despite recent advances2
2. Educational inequalities persist in Brazil, despite recent advances.

  • Literacy

  • Enrollment/Attendance



2 educational inequalities persist in brazil despite recent advances3
2. Educational inequalities persist in Brazil, despite recent advances.

  • Literacy

  • Enrollment/Attendance

  • Academic Achievement


Mean scores on 4 th grade saeb exams high medium and low achievers 95 97 99
Mean Scores on 4 recent advances.th Grade SAEB Exams: High, Medium and Low Achievers (’95,’97,’99)


Correlation between 8 th grade and 4 th grade mean scores for states 1995
Correlation Between 8 recent advances.th Grade and 4th Grade Mean Scores for States (1995)



Federal government s emphasis on participation
Federal Government’s Emphasis on Participation little defined.

Translation:

“Get to know your child’s second home.

April 24. National Day of the Family at School.”

Ministry of Education, 2001.



3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined2
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy


3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined3
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy

    2) Participation.


3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined4
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy

    2) Participation.

  • Change: Institutional


3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined5
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy

    2) Participation.

  • Change: Institutional Or Behavioral?


3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined6
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy

    2) Participation.

  • Change: Institutional Or Behavioral?

  • Aims: Economic Rationalization


3 school based management is a concept much discussed but little defined7
3. School-based management is a concept much discussed but little defined.

  • Basic principles:

    1) Autonomy

    2) Participation.

  • Change: Institutional Or Behavioral?

  • Aims: Economic Rationalization or Political Consciousness-raising?


Economic rationalization
Economic Rationalization: little defined.

  • Initially the demand for more democratic, participatory and decentralized management was almost an end in itself, and was basically a demand by teachers and other educational experts. By the end of the 1980’s demand for reforms in the management process came to be seen as a requirement for improving the efficiency and quality of the educational system, besides embracing an ever-wider range of the population. (Paes de Barros and Mendonça 1998: 79)


Social change
Social change: little defined.

  • There is a vast literature challenging the narrowness of the economist’s vision of school-based management that reduces it to an administrative activity. From different points of view, an attempt is made to rescue the uniqueness of the school as an institution, and the importance of understanding school-based management in terms of its pedagogical aims. In the field of research into school administration – where “administration” is defined as the rational utilization of resources to achieve specified ends --, it becomes necessary to make the educational objectives permeate the means by which they are achieved. (Krawczyk, 1999: 117)


Three background findings
Three Background Findings little defined.

  • There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Educational inequalities persist in Brazil, despite recent advances.

  • School-based management is a concept much discussed, but little defined.


Data analysis
Data Analysis little defined.

  • Universe: 26 States


Data analysis1
Data Analysis little defined.

  • Universe: 26 States

  • Sources: INEP, IBGE, UNDP


Data analysis2
Data Analysis little defined.

  • Universe: 26 States

  • Sources: INEP, IBGE, UNDP

  • SAEB/95: over 24,000 4th graders at 879 schools and 29,000 8th graders at 870 schools.


Data analysis3
Data Analysis little defined.

  • Universe: 26 States

  • Sources: INEP, IBGE, UNDP

  • SAEB/95: over 24,000 4th graders at 879 schools and 29,000 8th graders at 870 schools.

  • Education Production Function:

    Using past experience, scores can be predicted on the basis of home and school conditions.


4 academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors
4. little defined.Academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors.

  • Correlation between achievement and home conditions.




4 academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors1
4. little defined.Academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors.

  • Correlation between achievement and home conditions.

  • Correlation between achievement and school conditions




4 academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors2
4. little defined.Academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors.

  • Correlation between achievement and home conditions.

  • Correlation between achievement and school conditions

  • Correlation between home and school conditions.




5 sbm and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions
5. SBM and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions.

  • In the 4th grade data, there is a correlation between SBM and academic achievement.


Fourth grade correlation matrix3
Fourth Grade Correlation Matrix result from the same conditions.


Scatterplot: Mean Score and Percentage of Students in Schools with Active School Councils (4th Grade 1995)


Eighth grade correlation matrix3
Eighth Grade Correlation Matrix Schools with Active School Councils (4th Grade 1995)


Scatterplot: Mean Score and Percentage of Students in Schools with Active School Councils (8th Grade 1995)


5 sbm and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions1
5. SBM and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions.

  • In the 4th grade data, there is a correlation between SBM and academic achievement.

  • After controlling for home and school factors, SBM appears to have no independent power to explain or predict academic achievement.


Regression 4 th grade unweighted
Regression 4 result from the same conditions.th Grade (Unweighted)

  • Table 4.1 - NOTASAEB4 Regressed on PCTUNIV4 and COMPU4. (Unstandardized Coefficients)

  • Independent Variables Model 1 Model 2

  • Constant 174.742** 170.768**

  • PCTUNIV4 .519** .415**

  • COMPU4 .373*

  • Adjusted R square .464 .564

  • ** = P <.01

  • *= P <.05


Regression 4 th grade weighted
Regression 4 result from the same conditions.th Grade (Weighted)

  • Table 4.2 - NOTASAEB4 Regressed on PCTUNIV4. (Unstandardized Coefficients), weighted by 4th grade sample size)

  • Independent Variables Model 1

  • Constant 174.883**

  • PCTUNIV4 .546**

  • ______________________

  • Adjusted R square .549

  • ** = P <.01


Fourth grade correlation matrix4
Fourth Grade Correlation Matrix result from the same conditions.


Regression 8 th grade unweighted
Regression 8 result from the same conditions.th Grade (Unweighted)

  • Table 4.3 NOTASAEB8 Regressed on LITERACY and PCTUNIV8. (Unstandardized Coefficients, Unweighted)

  • Independent Variables Model 1 Model 2

  • Constant 144.254** 150.380**

  • LITERACY 1.229** .957**

  • PCTUNIV8 .262*

  • Adjusted R square .647 .774

  • ** = P <.01

  • * = P <.05


Regression 8 th grade weighted
Regression 8 result from the same conditions.th Grade (Weighted)

  • Table 4.4 - NOTASAEB8 Regressed on PCTUNIV8 and COMPU8. (Unstandardized Coefficients, Weighted by 8th grade Sample Size)

  • Independent Variables Model 1 Model 2

  • Constant 137.370** 145.605**

  • LITERACY 1.339** 1.052**

  • PCTUNIV8 .231**

  • Adjusted R square .722 .801

  • ** = P<.01


Eighth grade correlation matrix4
Eighth Grade Correlation Matrix result from the same conditions.


5 sbm and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions2
5. SBM and high levels of academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions.

  • In the 4th grade data, there is a correlation between SBM and academic achievement.

  • After controlling for home and school factors, SBM appears to have no independent power to explain or predict academic achievement.

  • Relationship between socioeconomic levels and participation: implications for effect of decentralization on reducing inequality?


Two findings from data analysis
Two Findings From Data Analysis result from the same conditions.

  • Academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors.

  • The adoption of SBM and high academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions.


Five main findings
Five Main Findings result from the same conditions.

  • There is a new philosophy guiding education policy in Brazil today.

  • Educational inequalities persist in Brazil, despite recent advances.

  • School-based management is a concept much discussed, but little defined.

  • Academic achievement is determined by a complex group of interrelated home and school factors.

  • The adoption of SBM and high academic achievement appear to result from the same conditions.


Synthesis of findings
Synthesis of Findings result from the same conditions.

Despite its importance in current educational thinking in Brazil, school-based management does not appear to have a significant effect on the interstate variance of academic achievement. The long-term effects of increased decentralization on educational inequality are not clear.


Synthesis of findings1
Synthesis of Findings result from the same conditions.

Despite its importance in current educational thinking in Brazil, school-based management does not appear to have a significant effect on the interstate variance of academic achievement. The long-term effects of increased decentralization on educational inequality are not clear.

Where the population is better-educated and better-off, there tend to be more resources available in the schools, there tends to be greater participation in school affairs by parents, and children tend to do better on standardized tests. The reverse is also true.


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