Resilient steel plate shear walls analysis of performance using opensees and teragrid resources
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Resilient Steel Plate Shear Walls: Analysis of Performance Using OpenSees and TeraGrid Resources. Patricia M. Clayton University of Washington. Jeffrey Berman (PI) Laura Lowes (Co-PI). NEES-SG: SPSW Research. Tasks: Develop a resilient SPSW

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Resilient steel plate shear walls analysis of performance using opensees and teragrid resources

Resilient Steel Plate Shear Walls: Analysis of Performance Using OpenSees and TeraGrid Resources

Patricia M. Clayton

University of Washington

Jeffrey Berman (PI)

Laura Lowes (Co-PI)


Nees sg spsw research
NEES-SG: SPSW Research

  • Tasks:

    • Develop a resilient SPSW

    • Develop performance based design tools for SPSW

    • Develop a new model for SPSW web plates

    • Explore the behavior of coupled SPSWs and develop design recommendations

Jeff Berman and Laura Lowes

Michel Bruneau

Larry Fahnestock

K.C. Tsai

Jeff Dragovich

Rafael Sabelli

Sponsored by NSF through the George E. Brown NEES Program


What is a resilient steel wall
What is a Resilient Steel Wall?

  • Combines benefits of Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs) with self-centering technologies

  • SPSW provides:

    • Ease of construction

    • High strength and initial stiffness

    • Ductility

    • Yielding over many stories

    • Replaceable energy dissipation elements (steel plates)

  • Post-Tensioned (PT) Connection provides:

    • Self-centering capabilities

    • Quick return to occupancy after earthquake


Conventional spsw behavior
Conventional SPSW Behavior

  • Resists lateral load through development of Tension Field Action

angle of

lateral

inclination

load

HBE

a

tensile

stresses

Web plate

VBE

HBE

diagonal

Courtesy of Berman and Bruneau

folds


Conventional spsw behavior1
Conventional SPSW Behavior

  • Idealized hysteretic behavior of SPSW with simple HBE-to-VBE connections:

VSPSW

Unloading

Plate yields

D

Low Stiffness

1st Cycle

2nd Cycle


Pt connection behavior
PT Connection Behavior

  • Provides self-centering capabilities

    • Connection is allowed to rock about its flanges

    • PT remains elastic to provide recentering force

  • Requires some energy dissipation

    • Examples from previous research:

      • Yielding angles (Garlock, 2002)

      • Friction devices (Iyama et al., 2009; Kim and Christopoulos, 2008)

Garlock (2002)

Iyama et al. (2009)


Pt connection behavior1
PT Connection Behavior

  • Nonlinear elastic cyclic behavior of PT connection:

VPT

Connection

Decompression

D

1st Cycle

qr

2nd Cycle


Combined system resilient spsw
Combined System: Resilient SPSW

VPT

VSPSW

D

D

Unloading

VR-SPSW

Plate yields

Connection

Decompression

Plates Unloaded

1st Cycle

2nd Cycle

D

Connection

Recompression


Performance based design
Performance-Based Design

Collapse

Prevention

Repair of Plates Only

V

V2/50

V10/50

First occurrence of:

  • PT rupture

  • Excessive PT yielding

  • Excessive frame yielding

  • Excessive story drifts

  • No Repair

    First occurrence of:

    • PT yielding

  • Frame yielding

  • Residual drift > 0.2%

  • V50/50

    Plate yielding

    Connection decompression

    Vwind

    D

    D50/50

    D20/50

    D10/50


    Prototype building designs
    Prototype Building Designs

    • Based on 3- and 9-story SAC buildings in LA

    • Vary number of R-SPSW bays in building

    • 2 design types:

      • Plates designed for V50/50

      • Plates designed for V10/50/R


    Analytical model
    Analytical Model

    • Nonlinear model in OpenSees

    • SPSW modeled using strip method:

    • Tension-only strips with pinched hysteresis

    • Strips oriented in direction of tension field


    Analytical model cont
    Analytical Model (cont.)

    • PT connection model:

    Shear transfer

    Rocking about HBE flanges

    Compression-only springs at HBE flanges

    Diagonal springs

    HBE

    VBE

    PT tendons

    Truss elements with initial stress (Steel02)

    Rigid offsets

    Physical Model

    Analytical Model

    • Compression-only springs at HBE flanges

    • Diagonal springs to transfer shear


    Dynamic analyses
    Dynamic Analyses

    • Each model subjected to 60 LA SAC ground motions representing 3 seismic hazard levels

      • 50% in 50 year

      • 10% in 50 year

      • 2% in 50 year

    • Used OpenSeesMP to run ground motions in parallel on TeraGrid machines

    Processor = 0

    Processor = 1

    R-SPSW model

    Processor = n-1


    Using teragrid
    Using TeraGrid

    OpenSeesMP .tcl scripts

    Batch submission script

    Ground acceleration records

    #!/bin/bash

    #$ -V

    #$ -cwd

    #$ -N jobName

    #$ -o $JOB_NAME.o$JOB_ID

    #$ -e $JOB_NAME.err$JOB_ID

    #$ -pe 16way 64

    #$ -q long

    #$ -l h_rt=48:00:00

    #$ -M [email protected]

    #$ -m be

    set –x

    ibrun $HOME/OpenSeesMP $WORK/OSmodel.tcl

    Abe

    Ranger


    Using TeraGrid

    Run all models and ground motions simultaneously using OpenSeesMP

    Processor = 0

    Processor = 1

    Abe

    R-SPSW model

    Processor = n-1

    Ranger


    Using teragrid1
    Using TeraGrid

    All results in the time it takes to run one ground motion.

    OpenSees recorder & output files

    Abe

    Ranger


    Response history results
    Response History Results

    • Example of Response during 2% in 50 year EQ

      • System Response

    • Connection Response


    Response history results1
    Response History Results

    • Statistical results from all 60 ground motions

    • Performance Objectives:

      • No plate repair (Story drift < 0.5%) in 50/50

        (this example designed using V10/50/R; plates not explicitly designed to remain elastic)

      • Recentering (Residual Drift < 0.2%) in 10/50

      • Story drift < 2.0% in 10/50 (represents DBE)

      • Limited PT, HBE, and VBE yielding in 2/50

    All performance objectives met !!!


    Comparing designs
    Comparing Designs

    R-SPSW designed using V50/50

    R-SPSW designed using V10/50/R

    Plates designed using reduced “DBE” forces

    • Plates designed to remain elastic in 50% in 50 year EQ

    • Larger plate thicknesses & frame members

    • Improved response

      • Recentering at all hazard levels

      • Smaller peak drifts


    Conclusions
    Conclusions

    • Preliminary design procedure developed for R-SPSW

    • Dynamic analyses show R-SPSW can meet proposed performance objectives

      • including recentering in 10% in 50 year EQ

    • Highly nonlinear model  significant computational effort

    • Use of TeraGrid resources reduced computational time by more than 90%

    • Experimental studies on R-SPSW currently taking place



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