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How To Make A Decent Disease Card!. EXAMPLE: Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS). What Categories Do You Need To Consider?. The Name/s of the Disease Common Names The Causal Agent & its Characteristics Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral

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How to make a decent disease card l.jpg

How To Make A Decent Disease Card!

EXAMPLE:

Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS)


What categories do you need to consider l.jpg
What Categories Do You Need To Consider?

  • The Name/s of the Disease

    • Common Names

  • The Causal Agent & its Characteristics

    • Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc

    • Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral

    • Appearance & shape

  • Worldwide Importance & Occurrence

  • Disease Reservoirs

  • Disease Transmission

  • Portals of Entry & Exit

  • Unique Toxins or Virulence Factors

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease Signs & Symptoms

  • Disease Identification, Confirmation & Diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else e.g. predisposed individuals etc


Where do i get the info l.jpg
Where Do I get the Info?

  • Index (Get page nos & chap no.)

  • Read the chapter & general information about the disease & the causal agent.

  • Look at all the pictures – the text is useful too.

  • Chapter Summary tables.

  • Chapter ‘Checkpoints’.

  • Chapter Summary.

  • Appendix D Disease tables by System.


Where do i get the info4 l.jpg
Where Do I get the Info?

  • Textbook Index (6th Ed. p. 538-41.

    7th Ed. p. 540)

  • Read the chapter (18) & general information about the disease & the causal agent.

  • Look at all the pictures (Figs 18.1, 18.2, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, Table 18.1, 18.2) – the text is useful too.

  • Chapter summary tables (Table 18.1).

  • Chapter ‘Checkpoints’ (7th Ed.p.543,

    6th Ed. p. 544 ).

  • Chapter summary (7th Ed. p. 560,

    6th Ed. P. 563).

  • Appendix D disease tables by system

    (page D-4, Table D.3 ‘Infections of Skin & Skin Wounds’).


Disease card categories l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Disease reservoirs

  • Disease transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Treatment & Prevention

  • Anything else


The name of the disease l.jpg
The Name of The Disease?

Common name or names?

  • Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSS) or

  • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)

  • or

  • Toxigenic Staphylococcal Disease


Disease card categories7 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


The causal agent genus species strain serovar pathovar l.jpg
The Causal Agent – Genus speciesStrain/Serovar/Pathovar

Staphylococcus aureus

BACTERIUM

  • Gram positive cocci.

  • Irregular clusters of cells.

  • Non-motile.

  • Resistant to drying, heat, harsh conditions (salt, pH, temp).

  • Facultative anaerobe.


Disease card categories9 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Worldwide importance l.jpg
Worldwide Importance

  • Ubiquitous

  • Common wherever there are humans!


Disease card categories11 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Disease reservoirs l.jpg
Disease Reservoirs

  • Mainly humans – normal flora

  • Common (20 – 60% carriage rate)

    • skin

    • nostrils

    • nasopharynx

    • oral cavity

    • intestine

      (No animal hosts - not a zoonosis)


Disease card categories13 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Disease transmission l.jpg
Disease Transmission

  • Nosocomial - newborn nurseries

  • Close contact

  • Nasal and oral droplets

  • Fomites

  • Poor hygiene

  • Tissue injury

    (No animal vectors)


Disease card categories15 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Portals l.jpg
Portals

  • Skin

  • Eyes

  • Umbilical Stump

    • Entrance may

      Differ from Exit


Disease card categories17 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Toxins l.jpg
Toxins

  • Exfoliative Toxins cause

    skin at the dermis to shed (desquamation) & peel.

    Virulence Factors resist phagocytosis & antibiotics, destroy host tissue & invade the blood.

  • Coagulase

  • Many others e.g. hyaluronidase,staphylokinase etc

  • Antibiotic Resistance enzymes

    • Penicillinases

SSS - Sub-corneal splitting


Disease card categories19 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Affected systems organs tissues l.jpg
Affected Systems/Organs/Tissues

  • Skin

  • Toxemia

    Signs & Symptoms

  • Infants & Children < 4 years old

  • Rash followed by painful red flush over entire body

  • Blisters

  • Desquamation of the epidermidis

    • Exfoliative toxins


Disease card categories21 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Diagnosis lab i d l.jpg
Diagnosis/Lab I.D.

  • Isolation

    • pus, tissue exudates, urine, blood

  • Inoculation of media

    • Blood agar (sheep/rabbit)

    • Mannitol salt agar

  • Gram-stain

  • Catalase test (Staph vs Strep)

  • Coagulase test (S. aureus vs S. species)

  • Rapid multitest system e.g.anaerobic & ferments mannitol

  • Latex bead agglutination test


Disease card categories23 l.jpg
Disease Card Categories?

  • The name of the disease

  • The causal agent & its characteristics

  • Worldwide importance & occurrence

  • Reservoirs

  • Transmission

  • Portals of entry & exit

  • Virulence factors & unique Toxins

  • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

  • Disease signs & symptoms

  • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

  • Prevention & Treatment

  • Anything else


Treatment l.jpg
Treatment

  • Toxemia treatment = lengthy, intensive therapy (oral/ingested drugs)

  • Multidrug Resistance (MDR)

    • PenicillinR, AmpicillinR, etc

  • Perform lab. antibioticR tests

    Prevention = Universal Precautions

  • Hygiene & handwashing

  • Cleansing of skin wounds

  • Disposal - dressings & discharges

  • Isolation – patients with open lesions

  • Care with catheters & needles

  • Ban nasal Staph. carriers - nurseries & delivery rooms

  • No vaccine yet

    • CAN NEVER BE ELIMINATED if humans are around!


  • Disease card categories25 l.jpg
    Disease Card Categories?

    • The Name of the disease

    • The Causal Agent & its characteristics

    • Worldwide importance & occurrence

    • Reservoirs

    • Transmission

    • Portals of Entry & Exit

    • Virulence factors & unique Toxins

    • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

    • Disease Signs & Symptoms

    • Disease identification, confirmation & diagnosis

    • Prevention & Treatment

    • Anything else


    Anything else predisposing conditions etc l.jpg
    Anything Else ?Predisposing Conditions… etc

    • Under 4 years old

    • Neonates

    • Pyogenic (generates pus)

    • Tough organism!


    What categories do you need to consider27 l.jpg
    What Categories Do You Need To Consider?

    • The Name/s of the Disease

      • Common Names

    • The Causal Agent & its Characteristics

      • Scientific Name: Genus & species, strain etc

      • Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoan, viral

      • Appearance & shape

    • Worldwide importance & occurrence

    • Reservoirs

    • Transmission

    • Portals of Entry & Exit

    • Unique Toxins or Factors

    • Systems/Organs/Tissues affected

    • Disease Signs & Symptoms

    • Disease Identification, Confirmation & Diagnosis

    • Prevention & Treatment

    • Anything else


    What diseases see disease list l.jpg
    What Diseases? See Disease List!

    • Bacterial Diseases

    • Cocci of Medical Importance

    • Staphylococcal Disease: Scalded Skin Syndrome

    • Staphylococcal Osteomyelitis

    • Toxic Shock Syndrome

    • Impetigo

    • MRSA and VRE

    • Streptococcal Disease: Impetigo

    • Pharyngitis

    • Scarlet Fever

    • Rheumatic Fever

    • Acute glomerulonephritis

    • Endocarditis

    • Pneumococcal pneumonia

    • Otitis media

    • Necrotizing Fasciitis

    • Dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis

    • Neisseria: Gonococcus: gonorrhea, ophthalmia neonatorum

    • Meningococcus: meningitis

    • Rods of Medical Importance

    • Endospore formers: Anthrax: cutaneous and pulmonary

    • Gas gangrene

    • Tetanus

    • Clostridial gastroenteritis & Clostridial colitis

    • Botulism

    • Non-endospore formers: Listeriosis

    • Diphtheria

    • Tuberculosis

    • Leprosy

    • Gram negative Pseudomonads

    • Whooping Cough

    • Legionnaires Disease

    • Salmonellosis

    • Shigellosis

    • Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    • Spiral and Unusual Syphilis: primary, secondary, and tertiary

    • Leptospirosis

    • Lyme Disease

    • Cholera

    • Campylobacter vibrios

    • Chlamydial infections, infantile conjunctivitis


    What diseases see disease list29 l.jpg
    What Diseases? See Disease List!

    • Fungi of Medical Importance

    • Dermatophytoses (cutaneous infections)

    • Ringworm infections: Tinea versicolor,

    • Ringworm of the body, groin, foot, hand, and nail

    • Systemic Infections

    • Candidiasis

    • Pneumocystis pneumonia

    • Histoplasmosis

    • Coccidioidomycosis

    • Parasitic Infections of Medical Importance

    • Protozoan infections

    • Amoebiasis

    • Giardiasis

    • Trichomoniasis

    • Malaria

    • Leishmaniasis

    • Toxoplasmosis

    • Trypanosomiasis

    • Helminth Infections

    • Ascariasis Shistosomiasis

    • Pinworm Tapeworm

    • Viral Infections of Medical Importance

    • DNA Viruses

    • Smallpox

    • Herpes simplex I and II

    • Chicken pox and Shingles

    • Infectious Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus)

    • Hepatitis B

    • Genital Warts

    • RNA Viruses

    • Influenza

    • Croup

    • Mumps

    • Red Measles (Rubeola)

    • German Measles (Rubella)

    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    • HIV and AIDS

    • West Nile Virus

    • Polio

    • Hepatitis A and C

    • Prions

    • CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)

    • BSE (Bovine spongiform encephaly), mad cow disease


    How should i organize my card chart l.jpg
    How Should I Organize My Card/Chart?

    • Any way you want!

    • Be creative!

    • Use cards or charts!

    • Try it out & see what works for YOU!

    • DO NOT copy or photocopy

      other people’s work!

    • You must write & make your own cards.


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