Module 9
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Module 9. Classical Conditioning. THREE KINDS OF LEARNING. Classical conditioning Stimulus substitution Pavlov/dogs Operant conditioning Consequences Thorndike/cats Skinner/rats Cognitive learning Predictable relationships Bandura/Bobo doll. Classical Conditioning.

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Module 9

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Module 9

Module 9

Classical Conditioning


Three kinds of learning

THREE KINDS OF LEARNING

Classical conditioning

  • Stimulus substitution

  • Pavlov/dogs

    Operant conditioning

  • Consequences

  • Thorndike/cats

  • Skinner/rats

    Cognitive learning

  • Predictable relationships

  • Bandura/Bobo doll


Classical conditioning

Classical Conditioning

  • Classical conditioning

    • stimulus substitution/conditioned reflex

    • Involuntary/elicited response

    • The goal is to create a new response to a neutral stimulus

    • Ex. The sight of a needle can trigger fear

    • Helps predict what may happen (survival)

  • Ivan Pavlov (salivating dogs)

    • Pavlov rang a bell before putting food in a dogs mouth.

    • after numerous trials of pairing the food and bell, the dog salivated to the sound of the bell

    • This becomes a conditioned reflex


Theories of classical conditioning

Theories of classical conditioning

Stimulus substitution

  • a neural bond or association forms in the brain between the neutral stimulus (bell) and unconditioned stimulus (food)

  • The bell substitutes for food

    Contiguity theory

    • two stimuli (neutral stimulus and unconditional stimulus) are paired close together in time (contiguous)

    • The sight of food elicits salivation


Module 9

Theories of classical conditioning (cont.)

Cognitive perspective

  • an organism learns a predictable relationship between two stimuli such that the occurrence of one stimulus (neutral stimulus) predicts the occurrence of another (unconditioned stimulus)

    • The bell predicts the food


Classical conditioning1

Classical Conditioning

NS UCS UCR

CSCR


Procedure classical conditioning

PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

  • Step 1: Choosing stimulus and response

    • Neutral stimulus

      • some stimulus that causes a sensory response, such as being seen, heard, or smelled, but does not produce the reflex being tested

    • Unconditioned stimulus

      • USC, some stimulus that triggers or elicits a physiological reflex, such as salivation or eye blink

    • Unconditioned response

      • UCR, unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus


Procedure classical conditioning cont

PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.)

  • Step 2: Establishing classical conditioning

    • Neutral stimulus

      • trial, pair neutral stimulus (bell) with the unconditioned stimulus (food)

      • neutral stimulus presented first then short time later the unconditioned stimulus

    • Unconditioned stimulus

      • seconds after the tone begins, you present the UCS

    • Unconditioned response

      • UCS (food) elicits the UCR (salivation)


Procedure classical conditioning cont1

PROCEDURE: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (CONT.)

  • Step 3: Testing for conditioning

    • Conditioned stimulus

      • CS, is a formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response that was previously elicited by the unconditioned stimulus

    • Conditioned response

      • CR, elicited by the conditioned stimulus, is similar to, but not identical in size or amount to, the UCS

      • CR, less salivation than the UCR


Other conditioning concepts

OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS

  • Generalization

    • tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original CS to elicit a response that is similar to the CR

    • Shampoo and aftershave

  • Discrimination

    • occurs during classical conditioning when an organism learns to make a particular response to some stimuli but not to others

    • Nail polish and aftershave


Other conditioning concepts cont

OTHER CONDITIONING CONCEPTS (CONT.)

  • Extinction

    • a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS and, as a result, the CS tends to no longer elicit the CR

    • Boyfriend’s aftershave

  • Spontaneous recovery

    • tendency for the CR to reappear after being extinguished even though there have been no further conditioning trials

  • Systematic Desensitization

    • Change CS back to NS

    • Effective tx for nausea, fear of blood, public speaking


Adaptive values uses

ADAPTIVE VALUES & USES

  • Adaptive value

    • certain abilities or genetic traits that have evolved to increase survival, such as finding food, acquiring mates, and avoiding pain and injury

    • Bluejays avoid Monarchs

  • Taste aversion learning

    • associating a particular sensory cue (smell, tastes, sound, or sight) with getting sick and thereafter avoiding that particular unpleasant or dangerous sensory cue in the future

    • Can develop after one exposure and last 4-5 years


Classical conditioning2

Classical Conditioning

NS UCS UCR

CSCR

Bell

Aftershave

Tapping arm

Sight of needle

Dish soap

Rat/rabbit/dog

Eye blink

Salivation

Nausea

Anxiety

Pain

Fear

Startle

Cry

Loud noise, chemo, food, dental procedure, needle injection

Noise of squeaky wheelbarrow, aftershave

Salivating to the sound of a bell or wheelbarrow, fear/fainting/nausea


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