Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes. Energy Transfer. When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler increases The energy exchange ceases when the objects reach thermal equilibrium
Energy in Thermal Processes
Water at the top of Niagara Falls has a temperature of 10.0°C. If it falls a distance of 50.0 m and all of its potential energy goes into heating the water, calculate the temperature of the water at the bottom of the falls.
A 50.0-g piece of cadmium is at 20°C. If 400 cal of energy is transferred to the cadmium, what is its final temperature?
A 5.00-g lead bullet traveling at 300 m/s is stopped by a large tree. If half the kinetic energy of the bullet is transformed into internal energy and remains with the bullet while the other half is transmitted to the tree, what is the increase in temperature of the bullet?
In some cases it may be difficult to determine which materials gain heat and which materials lose heat
You can start with SQ = 0
Each Q = m c DT
Use Tf – Ti
You don’t have to determine before using the equation which materials will gain or lose heatCalorimetry with More Than Two Materials
What mass of water at 25.0°C must be allowed to come to thermal equilibrium with a 3.00-kg gold bar at 100°C in order to lower the temperature of the bar to 50.0°C?
An aluminum cup contains 225 g of water and a 40-g copper stirrer, all at 27°C. A 400-g sample of silver at an initial temperature of 87°C is placed in the water. The stirrer is used to stir the mixture until it reaches its final equilibrium temperature of 32°C. Calculate the mass of the aluminum cup.
A 100-g aluminum calorimeter contains 250 g of water. The two substances are in thermal equilibrium at 10°C. Two metallic blocks are placed in the water. One is a 50-g piece of copper at 80°C. The other sample has a mass of 70 g and is originally at a temperature of 100°C. The entire system stabilizes at a final temperature of 20°C. Determine the specific heat of the unknown second sample.
A 100-g cube of ice at 0°C is dropped into 1.0 kg of water that was originally at 80°C. What is the final temperature of the water after the ice has melted?
What mass of steam that is initially at 120°C is needed to warm 350 g of water and its 300-g aluminum container from 20°C to 50°C?
(a) Find the rate of energy flow through a copper block of cross-sectional area 15 cm2 and length 8.0 cm when a temperature difference of 30°C is established across the block. Repeat the calculation, assuming that the material is (b) a block of stagnant air with the given dimensions; (c) a block of wood with the given dimensions.