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Review. Overview of Cryptography Classical Symmetric Cipher Substitution Cipher Transposition Cipher Product Cipher Modern Symmetric Ciphers (DES). Basic Terminology. plaintext - the original message ciphertext - the coded message

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Review

Review

  • Overview of Cryptography

  • Classical Symmetric Cipher

    • Substitution Cipher

    • Transposition Cipher

    • Product Cipher

  • Modern Symmetric Ciphers (DES)


Basic terminology

Basic Terminology

  • plaintext - the original message

  • ciphertext - the coded message

  • cipher - algorithm for transforming plaintext to ciphertext

  • key - info used in cipher known only to sender/receiver

  • encipher (encrypt) - converting plaintext to ciphertext

  • decipher (decrypt) - recovering ciphertext from plaintext

  • cryptography - study of encryption principles/methods

  • cryptanalysis (codebreaking) - the study of principles/ methods of deciphering ciphertext without knowing key

  • cryptology - the field of both cryptography and cryptanalysis


Feistel cipher structure

Feistel Cipher Structure

  • Feistel cipher implements Shannon’s S-P network concept

    • based on invertible product cipher

  • Process through multiple rounds which

    • partitions input block into two halves

    • perform a substitution on left data half

    • based on round function of right half & subkey

    • then have permutation swapping halves


Des data encryption standard

DES (Data Encryption Standard)

  • Published in 1977, standardized in 1979.

  • Key: 64 bit quantity=8-bit parity+56-bit key

    • Every 8th bit is a parity bit.

  • 64 bit input, 64 bit output.

64 bit M

64 bit C

DES

Encryption

56 bits


Des top view

DES Top View

56-bit Key

64-bit Input

48-bit K1

Generate keys

Permutation

Initial Permutation

48-bit K1

Round 1

48-bit K2

Round 2

…...

48-bit K16

Round 16

Swap 32-bit halves

Swap

Final Permutation

Permutation

64-bit Output


Bit permutation 1 to 1

Bit Permutation (1-to-1)

1 2 3 4 32

…….

0 0 1 0 1

Input:

1 bit

Output

……..

1 0 1 1 1

22 6 13 32 3


Per round key generation

Per-Round Key Generation

Initial Permutation of DES key

C i-1

D i-1

28 bits

28 bits

Circular Left Shift

Circular Left Shift

One

round

Round 1,2,9,16:

single shift

Others: two bits

Permutation

with Discard

48 bits

Ki

C i

D i

28 bits

28 bits


A des round

A DES Round

32 bits Ln

32 bits Rn

E

One Round

Encryption

48 bits

Mangler

Function

48 bits

Ki

S-Boxes

P

32 bits

32 bits Ln+1

32 bits Rn+1


Mangler function

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Permutation

Mangler Function

The permutation produces “spread” among the chunks/S-boxes!


Review

Bits Expansion (1-to-m)

1 2 3 4 5 32

Input:

…….

0 0 1 0 1 1

Output

……..

10 0 1 0 1 0 110

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 48


S box substitute and shrink

2 bits

row

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

S

O1

O2

O3

O4

i

4 bits

column

= 1,…8.

i

S-Box (Substitute and Shrink)

  • 48 bits ==> 32 bits. (8*6 ==> 8*4)

  • 2 bits used to select amongst 4 substitutions for the rest of the 4-bit quantity


Des standard

Cipher Iterative Action :

Input:64 bits

Key:48 bits

Output:64 bits

Key Generation Box :

Input:56 bits

Output:48 bits

DES Standard

One round (Total 16 rounds)


Des box summary

DES Box Summary

  • Simple, easy to implement:

    • Hardware/gigabits/second, software/megabits/second

  • 56-bit key DES may be acceptable for non-critical applications but triple DES (DES3) should be secure for most applications today

  • Supports several operation modes (ECB CBC, OFB, CFB) for different applications


Outlines

Outlines

  • Strength/weakness of DES, AES

  • Public Key Cryptography

  • Modular Arithmetic

  • RSA


Avalanche effect

Avalanche Effect

  • Key desirable property of encryption alg

  • Where a change of one input or key bit results in changing more than half output bits

  • DES exhibits strong avalanche


Strength of des key size

Strength of DES – Key Size

  • 56-bit keys have 256 = 7.2 x 1016 values

  • Brute force search looks hard

  • Recent advances have shown is possible

    • in 1997 on a huge cluster of computers over the Internet in a few months

    • in 1998 on dedicated hardware called “DES cracker” by EFF in a few days ($220,000)

    • in 1999 above combined in 22hrs!

  • Still must be able to recognize plaintext

  • No big flaw for DES algorithms


Des replacement

DES Replacement

  • Triple-DES (3DES)

    • 168-bit key, no brute force attacks

    • Underlying encryption algorithm the same, no effective analytic attacks

    • Drawbacks

      • Performance: no efficient software codes for DES/3DES

      • Efficiency/security: bigger block size desirable

  • Advanced Encryption Standards (AES)

    • US NIST issued call for ciphers in 1997

    • Rijndael was selected as the AES in Oct-2000


Review

AES

  • Private key symmetric block cipher

  • 128-bit data, 128/192/256-bit keys

  • Stronger & faster than Triple-DES

  • Provide full specification & design details

  • Evaluation criteria

    • Security: effort to practically cryptanalysis

    • Cost: computational efficiency and memory requirement

    • Algorithm & implementation characteristics: flexibility to apps, hardware/software suitability, simplicity


Aes shortlist

AES Shortlist

  • After testing and evaluation, shortlist in Aug-99:

    • MARS (IBM) - complex, fast, high security margin

    • RC6 (USA) - v. simple, v. fast, low security margin

    • Rijndael (Belgium) - clean, fast, good security margin

    • Serpent (Euro) - slow, clean, v. high security margin

    • Twofish (USA) - complex, v. fast, high security margin

  • Then subject to further analysis & comment


Outlines1

Outlines

  • Strength/weakness of DES, AES

  • Public Key Cryptography

  • Modular Arithmetic

  • RSA


Private key cryptography

Private-Key Cryptography

  • Private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key

  • Shared by both sender and receiver

  • If this key is disclosed communications are compromised

  • Also is symmetric, parties are equal

  • Hence does not protect sender from receiver forging a message & claiming is sent by sender


Public key cryptography

Public-Key Cryptography

  • Probably most significant advance in the 3000 year history of cryptography

  • Uses two keys – a public & a private key

  • Asymmetric since parties are not equal

  • Uses clever application of number theoretic concepts to function

  • Complements rather than replaces private key crypto


Public key cryptography1

Public-Key Cryptography

  • Public-key/two-key/asymmetric cryptography involves the use of two keys:

    • a public-key, which may be known by anybody, and can be used to encrypt messages, and verify signatures

    • a private-key, known only to the recipient, used to decrypt messages, and sign (create) signatures

  • Asymmetric because

    • those who encrypt messages or verify signatures cannot decrypt messages or create signatures


Public key cryptography2

Public-Key Cryptography


Public key characteristics

Public-Key Characteristics

  • Public-Key algorithms rely on two keys with the characteristics that it is:

    • computationally infeasible to find decryption key knowing only algorithm & encryption key

    • computationally easy to en/decrypt messages when the relevant (en/decrypt) key is known

    • either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption (in some schemes)

  • Analogy to delivery w/ a padlocked box


Public key cryptosystems

Public-Key Cryptosystems

  • Two major applications:

    • encryption/decryption (provide secrecy)

    • digital signatures (provide authentication)


Outlines2

Outlines

  • Strength/weakness of DES, AES

  • Public Key Cryptography

  • Modular Arithmetic

  • RSA


Modular arithmetic

Modular Arithmetic

  • Public key algorithms are based on modular arithmetic.

  • Modular addition.

  • Modular multiplication.

  • Modular exponentiation.


Modular addition

Modular Addition

  • Addition modulo (mod) K

    • Poor cipher with (dk+dm) mod K, e.g., if K=10 and dk is the key.

  • Additive inverse: addition mod K yields 0.

  • “Decrypt” by adding inverse.


Modular multiplication

Modular Multiplication

  • Multiplication modulo K

  • Multiplicative inverse: multiplication mod K yields 1

  • Only some numbers have inverse


Modular multiplication1

Modular Multiplication

  • Only the numbers relatively prime to n will have mod n multiplicative inverse

  • x, m relative prime: no other common factor than 1

    • Eg. 8 & 15 are relatively prime - factors of 8 are 1,2,4,8 and of 15 are 1,3,5,15 and 1 is the only common factor


Totient function

Totient Function

  • Totient function ø(n): number of integers less than n relatively prime to n

    • if n is prime,

      • ø(n)=n-1

    • if n=pq, and p, q are primes, p != q

      • ø(n)=(p-1)(q-1)

    • E.g.,

      • ø(37) = 36

      • ø(21) = (3–1)×(7–1) = 2×6 = 12


Modular exponentiation

Modular Exponentiation


Modular exponentiation1

Modular Exponentiation

  • xy mod n = xy mod ø(n) mod n

  • if y = 1 mod ø(n) then xy mod n = x mod n


Outlines3

Outlines

  • Strength/weakness of DES, AES

  • Public Key Cryptography

  • Modular Arithmetic

  • RSA


Rsa rivest shamir adleman

RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman)

  • The most popular one.

  • Support both public key encryption and digital signature.

  • Assumption/theoretical basis:

    • Factoring a big number is hard.

  • Variable key length (usually 512 bits).

  • Variable plaintext block size.

    • Plaintext must be “smaller” than the key.

    • Ciphertext block size is the same as the key length.


What is rsa

What Is RSA?

  • To generate key pair:

    • Pick large primes (>= 256 bits each) p and q

    • Let n = p*q, keep your p and q to yourself!

    • For public key, choose e that is relatively prime to ø(n) =(p-1)(q-1), let pub = <e,n>

    • For private key, find d that is the multiplicative inverse of e mod ø(n),i.e., e*d = 1 mod ø(n), let priv = <d,n>


Rsa example

RSA Example

  • Select primes: p=17 & q=11

  • Computen = pq =17×11=187

  • Computeø(n)=(p–1)(q-1)=16×10=160

  • Select e : gcd(e,160)=1; choose e=7

  • Determine d: de=1 mod 160 and d < 160 Value is d=23 since 23×7=161= 10×160+1

  • Publish public key KU={7,187}

  • Keep secret private key KR={23,17,11}


How does rsa work

How Does RSA Work?

  • Given pub = <e, n> and priv = <d, n>

    • encryption: c = me mod n, m < n

    • decryption: m = cd mod n

    • signature: s = md mod n, m < n

    • verification: m = se mod n

  • given message M = 88 (nb. 88<187)

  • encryption:

    C = 887 mod 187 = 11

  • decryption:

    M = 1123 mod 187 = 88


Why does rsa work

Why Does RSA Work?

  • Given pub = <e, n> and priv = <d, n>

    • n =p*q, ø(n) =(p-1)(q-1)

    • e*d = 1 mod ø(n)

    • xed = x mod n

    • encryption: c = me mod n

    • decryption: m = cd mod n = med mod n = m mod n = m (since m < n)

    • digital signature (similar)


Is rsa secure

Is RSA Secure?

  • Factoring 512-bit number is very hard!

  • But if you can factor big number n then given public key <e,n>, you can find d, hence the private key by:

    • Knowing factors p, q, such that, n= p*q

    • Then ø(n) =(p-1)(q-1)

    • Then d such that e*d = 1 mod ø(n)

  • Threat

    • Moore’s law

    • Refinement of factorizing algorithms

  • For the near future, a key of 1024 or 2048 bits needed


Symmetric des vs public key rsa

Symmetric (DES) vs. Public Key (RSA)

  • Exponentiation of RSA is expensive !

  • AES and DES are much faster

    • 100 times faster in software

    • 1,000 to 10,000 times faster in hardware

  • RSA often used in combination in AES and DES

    • Pass the session key with RSA


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