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Warm up – Page 5. What are the 3 stages of memory? What is encoding? What are the 5 different ways we encode info? Class- Demos 4 and 5. Part 2 Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory. Part 2. Storage:Sensory Memory.

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Warm up page 5
Warm up – Page 5

  • What are the 3 stages of memory?

  • What is encoding?

  • What are the 5 different ways we encode info?

  • Class- Demos 4 and 5


Part 2

Part 2

Sensory Memory

Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory

Part 2


Storage sensory memory
Storage:Sensory Memory

Sensory Memory:refers to the initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. All information is held here briefly(1/2 to 4 seconds)

  • Filter system- figures out if the stimuli is important

    Sensory Memories include both:

  • Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of a visual stimuli. Memory only lasts for a few tenths of a second.

  • Echoic Memory:a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli. Sound memories can usually last up to 3 or 4 seconds.

    Sensory memory is very hard to measure since it fades as we try to measure it.




  • KRG

    XDT

    WLP


    XCV

    BHY

    OTR


    MKL

    WDC

    BGT


    DWS

    VFT

    GXC


    ZXA

    QKI

    NHY


    FVG

    HYU

    AVH


    JKI

    LKM

    NYT


    How does sensory memory get processed into memory
    How Does Sensory Memory Get Processed Into Memory?

    • Sensory memories disappear unless you focus your selective attention on the information.

    • Attention causes information to be further processed.

    • Rehearse things and make them relevant and meaningful to yourself

      • Only way to get info into short term and then eventually into long term memory storage


    Storage short term memory
    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • Peterson Study

      • Demo 2

        • 1. You want to remember TXL

        • 2. Start counting backwards from 100 by 3s

        • 3. After 5 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

          Remember LTS

        • 4. After 20 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

        • 5. Why did you forget the trigram as time goes on

    • If you don’t rehearse info. it goes away


    Storage short term memory1
    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • STM- has a limited capacity and duration

      • Couple seconds

      • 7 +/- 2

  • Remember random digits better than random letters

  • Remember things we hear better than things we see

  • If you use chunking, rehearsal and self reference you will remember things longer

  • Only through rehearsal and or self reference do short-term memories become long term memories.


  • Is long term memory like an attic
    Is Long Term Memory Like an Attic?

    • Sherlock Holmes: “I consider that a man’s brain is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose…It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something you knew before.”

    • Is this true?


    Storage long term memory
    Storage- Long Term Memory

    • Average adult has a billion bits of info in their memory

    • If you don’t properly encode info, it becomes hard to recall

      • We don’t always encode info correctly

  • LTM= limitless capacity

  • Rajan Mahadeva = Pi experiment


  • Demo 3
    Demo 3

    • 2 1 6 9 6 4 6 1 5 1 9 9 7 2 5 2 4 6 8 0 1 2 9 6 1 6 0 8 9 4

    • 4-6 average

    • 10-19 extraordinary

    • 20-30 brilliant


    So where are memories stored
    So Where Are Memories Stored?

    • Karl Lashley searched for the brain “engram,” physical “memory trace” in rats after they had run mazes from 1920 to 1955.

    • Lashley believed:

    • Learning was NOT localized, all parts of cortex worked together and as a whole.


    Neural basis and emotional impact for memory
    Neural Basis and Emotional Impact For Memory

    • Long Term Potentiation (LTP): refers to the long-lasting strengthening of the connection between 2 neurons. Is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory.

    • Process occurs naturally when we learn through association…after learning has occurred, neurons involved in process become more efficient at transmitting the signals.

    • Drugs that block LTP affect learning drastically.

    • Strong emotions make for stronger memories

      • Stress hormones boost impact on learning.


    Storage loss amnesia
    Storage Loss: Amnesia

    • Amnesiarefers to the loss of memory.

      • Depending on the damage or disease different kinds of memories can be damaged

    • Amnesiac patients typically have losses in explicit memory.

    • Explicit Memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.

      • My birthday is ………

      • Napoleon is…………


    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory
    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Hippocampus: neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage….left and right hippocampus have different effects.


    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory1
    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Names, images and events

    • Damage to the Left= trouble with verbal info.

    • Damage to Right= visual designs and locations

    • Different parts of the brain house different memories

    • Monkeys with Hippocampus damage had old memories that remained intact


    Implicit memory
    Implicit Memory

    • Other type of memory storage is known as:

    • Implicit Memory (Procedural Memory): retention of things without conscious recollection. Is Skill Memory.

      • Walking

      • Riding a bike

      • Soccer


    Cerebellum s role in implicit memory
    Cerebellum’s Role in Implicit Memory

    • Cerebellum: helps facilitate associate learning responses

      • ie classical conditioning.

  • Cutting pathway to the cerebellum makes rabbits unable to learn conditioned responses.


  • A diagram for your viewing pleasure

    Types of

    long-term

    memories

    Explicit

    (declarative)

    With conscious

    recall

    Implicit

    (nondeclarative)

    Without conscious

    recall

    Personally

    experienced

    events

    (“episodic

    memory”)

    Dispositions-

    classical and

    operant

    conditioning

    effects

    Facts-general

    knowledge

    (“semantic

    memory”)

    Skills-motor

    and cognitive

    A Diagram For Your Viewing Pleasure


    Warm up pg 8
    Warm Up – pg 8

    • How do you get info into Long TermMemory?

    • What is the purpose of Sensory Memory?

    • What is Long Term Potential?

    • What is the capacity of STM?

    • What is the difference between explicit and implicit memories?

    • Where are explicit memories stored?



    Retrieval getting information out
    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.

    • Ex: Fill in the Blank.


    Retrieval getting information out1
    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.

    • Easier than recall

      • Ex: Multiple Choice


    Retrieval cues
    Retrieval Cues

    • Priming:activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations of memory.

      • Missing child poster…. Kidnapped

      • Tastes, smells,sights


    Retrieval cues1

    Context Effects Memory Retrieval: able to retrieve information better when you are in the same context you learned it in.

    Deja Vu

    Retrieval Cues



    Emotional/Mood Impact of Memory:

    • 1. State-Dependent Memory: information is most easily recalled when in same “state” of consciousness it was learned in.

      • Drunk

  • 2. Mood Congruent Memory: tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood.

    • Depressed ppl recall parents as rejecting , mean…..

    • Teenagers and their relationships with their parents

    • Bad mood…. Look=glare


  • 7 sins of memory

    Absent Mindedness – inattention to details produces encoding failure

    Transience- unused info. fades

    Blocking- unable to access stored info….tip of your tongue

    Misattribution- confusing the source of the info.

    7 sins of Memory


    5. Suggestibility- the lingering effects of misinformation

    Leading questions

    6.Bias-belief- colored recollections

    7. Persistence-unwanted memories won’t go away


    Blocking demo
    Blocking Demo

    • Oslo

    • Ankara

    • Nairobi

    • Montevideo

    • Lhasa

    • Canberra

    • Lisbon

    • Bucharest

    • Port- au- Prince

    • Sofia

    • Seoul

    • Baghdad

    • Nicosia


    • Nicosia

    • Manila

    • Managua

    • Helsinki

    • Bogota

    • Ottawa

    • Bangkok

    • Caracas

    • Juneau

    • Santa Fe

    • Pierre

    • Jefferson City

    • Topeka

    • Dover


    27. Raleigh

    28. Montpellier

    29.Olympia

    30. Cheyenne

    31.Jackson

    32. Concord

    33. Boise

    34. Springfield

    35. Harrisburg

    36. Salem

    37. Helena

    38. Hartford

    39. Lansing

    40. Augusta


    Forgetting
    Forgetting

    • Forgetting is a result of either:

    • Encoding Failure

    • Storage Decay OR

    • Retrieval Failure


    Forgetting as encoding failure
    Forgetting As Encoding Failure

    • Information never enters the memory system

    • Attention is selective

      • we cannot attend to everything in our environment

    • William James said that we would be as bad off if we remembered everything as we would be if we remembered nothing

    • Change Blindness

      • Penny



    Penny
    Penny

    • Which way does Lincoln Face? To the Left or Right?

    • Is anything written above his head? If yes, what it is?

    • Is anything below his head? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the left of his face? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the right of his face? If so, what is it?


    Penny1
    Penny

    • Lincoln faces to the right

    • Above his head it say’s “ In god We Trust”

    • Below his head is nothing

    • To his left it says” liberty”

    • To his right is the year the coin was minted


    More encoding failures
    More Encoding Failures

    • What is the color of the top stripe of the American flag?

      • Red

        2. The bottom Stripe?

      • Red

        3. How many red and white stripes does it have?

      • 7 red and 6 white


    More encoding failures1
    More Encoding Failures

    4. Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides dot hey typically have?

    • Six

      5. In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch?

    • Right



    Retrieval failure

    Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory

    Google

    Retrieval Failure


    Forgetting and spanish learned

    100%

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage of

    original

    vocabulary

    retained

    Retention

    drops,

    then levels off

    1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½

    Time in years after completion of Spanish course

    Forgetting and Spanish Learned


    Forgetting as interference
    Forgetting As Interference

    • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information

      • Proactive(forward acting) Interference

        • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information

          • New Phone Number

          • New schedule


    Forgetting as interference1
    Forgetting As Interference

    • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference

      • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

        • Teacher learning new names

        • Take a break after learning


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