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Warm up – Page 5. What are the 3 stages of memory? What is encoding? What are the 5 different ways we encode info? Class- Demos 4 and 5. Part 2 Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory. Part 2. Storage:Sensory Memory.

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Warm up page 5

Warm up – Page 5

  • What are the 3 stages of memory?

  • What is encoding?

  • What are the 5 different ways we encode info?

  • Class- Demos 4 and 5


Part 2

Part 2

Sensory Memory

Short Term Memory

Long Term Memory

Part 2


Storage sensory memory

Storage:Sensory Memory

Sensory Memory:refers to the initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. All information is held here briefly(1/2 to 4 seconds)

  • Filter system- figures out if the stimuli is important

    Sensory Memories include both:

  • Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of a visual stimuli. Memory only lasts for a few tenths of a second.

  • Echoic Memory:a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli. Sound memories can usually last up to 3 or 4 seconds.

    Sensory memory is very hard to measure since it fades as we try to measure it.


  • George sperling s experiment to measure iconic memory

    George Sperling’s Experiment to Measure Iconic Memory


    Demo 1 sensory memory

    Demo 1- Sensory Memory

    AGB

    TJK

    WLP


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    KRG

    XDT

    WLP


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    XCV

    BHY

    OTR


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    MKL

    WDC

    BGT


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    DWS

    VFT

    GXC


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    ZXA

    QKI

    NHY


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    FVG

    HYU

    AVH


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    JKI

    LKM

    NYT


    How does sensory memory get processed into memory

    How Does Sensory Memory Get Processed Into Memory?

    • Sensory memories disappear unless you focus your selective attention on the information.

    • Attention causes information to be further processed.

    • Rehearse things and make them relevant and meaningful to yourself

      • Only way to get info into short term and then eventually into long term memory storage


    Storage short term memory

    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • Peterson Study

      • Demo 2

        • 1. You want to remember TXL

        • 2. Start counting backwards from 100 by 3s

        • 3. After 5 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

          Remember LTS

        • 4. After 20 seconds write the trigram on your activity sheet

        • 5. Why did you forget the trigram as time goes on

    • If you don’t rehearse info. it goes away


    Storage short term memory1

    Storage: Short Term Memory

    • STM- has a limited capacity and duration

      • Couple seconds

      • 7 +/- 2

  • Remember random digits better than random letters

  • Remember things we hear better than things we see

  • If you use chunking, rehearsal and self reference you will remember things longer

  • Only through rehearsal and or self reference do short-term memories become long term memories.


  • Is long term memory like an attic

    Is Long Term Memory Like an Attic?

    • Sherlock Holmes: “I consider that a man’s brain is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose…It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something you knew before.”

    • Is this true?


    Storage long term memory

    Storage- Long Term Memory

    • Average adult has a billion bits of info in their memory

    • If you don’t properly encode info, it becomes hard to recall

      • We don’t always encode info correctly

  • LTM= limitless capacity

  • Rajan Mahadeva = Pi experiment


  • Demo 3

    Demo 3

    • 2 1 6 9 6 4 6 1 5 1 9 9 7 2 5 2 4 6 8 0 1 2 9 6 1 6 0 8 9 4

    • 4-6 average

    • 10-19 extraordinary

    • 20-30 brilliant


    So where are memories stored

    So Where Are Memories Stored?

    • Karl Lashley searched for the brain “engram,” physical “memory trace” in rats after they had run mazes from 1920 to 1955.

    • Lashley believed:

    • Learning was NOT localized, all parts of cortex worked together and as a whole.


    Neural basis and emotional impact for memory

    Neural Basis and Emotional Impact For Memory

    • Long Term Potentiation (LTP): refers to the long-lasting strengthening of the connection between 2 neurons. Is believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory.

    • Process occurs naturally when we learn through association…after learning has occurred, neurons involved in process become more efficient at transmitting the signals.

    • Drugs that block LTP affect learning drastically.

    • Strong emotions make for stronger memories

      • Stress hormones boost impact on learning.


    Storage loss amnesia

    Storage Loss: Amnesia

    • Amnesiarefers to the loss of memory.

      • Depending on the damage or disease different kinds of memories can be damaged

    • Amnesiac patients typically have losses in explicit memory.

    • Explicit Memory (declarative memory): memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.

      • My birthday is ………

      • Napoleon is…………


    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory

    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Hippocampus: neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage….left and right hippocampus have different effects.


    Hippocampus s role in explicit memory1

    Hippocampus’s Role in Explicit Memory

    • Names, images and events

    • Damage to the Left= trouble with verbal info.

    • Damage to Right= visual designs and locations

    • Different parts of the brain house different memories

    • Monkeys with Hippocampus damage had old memories that remained intact


    Implicit memory

    Implicit Memory

    • Other type of memory storage is known as:

    • Implicit Memory (Procedural Memory): retention of things without conscious recollection. Is Skill Memory.

      • Walking

      • Riding a bike

      • Soccer


    Cerebellum s role in implicit memory

    Cerebellum’s Role in Implicit Memory

    • Cerebellum: helps facilitate associate learning responses

      • ie classical conditioning.

  • Cutting pathway to the cerebellum makes rabbits unable to learn conditioned responses.


  • A diagram for your viewing pleasure

    Types of

    long-term

    memories

    Explicit

    (declarative)

    With conscious

    recall

    Implicit

    (nondeclarative)

    Without conscious

    recall

    Personally

    experienced

    events

    (“episodic

    memory”)

    Dispositions-

    classical and

    operant

    conditioning

    effects

    Facts-general

    knowledge

    (“semantic

    memory”)

    Skills-motor

    and cognitive

    A Diagram For Your Viewing Pleasure


    Warm up pg 8

    Warm Up – pg 8

    • How do you get info into Long TermMemory?

    • What is the purpose of Sensory Memory?

    • What is Long Term Potential?

    • What is the capacity of STM?

    • What is the difference between explicit and implicit memories?

    • Where are explicit memories stored?


    Chapter 9 memory pt 2 storage retrieval and forgetting

    Chapter 9 Memory pt. 2: Storage, Retrieval, and Forgetting


    Retrieval getting information out

    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier.

    • Ex: Fill in the Blank.


    Retrieval getting information out1

    Retrieval: Getting Information Out

    • Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned.

    • Easier than recall

      • Ex: Multiple Choice


    Retrieval cues

    Retrieval Cues

    • Priming:activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations of memory.

      • Missing child poster…. Kidnapped

      • Tastes, smells,sights


    Retrieval cues1

    Context Effects Memory Retrieval: able to retrieve information better when you are in the same context you learned it in.

    Deja Vu

    Retrieval Cues


    Demo 1

    Demo 1


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    Emotional/Mood Impact of Memory:

    • 1. State-Dependent Memory: information is most easily recalled when in same “state” of consciousness it was learned in.

      • Drunk

  • 2. Mood Congruent Memory: tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood.

    • Depressed ppl recall parents as rejecting , mean…..

    • Teenagers and their relationships with their parents

    • Bad mood…. Look=glare


  • 7 sins of memory

    Absent Mindedness – inattention to details produces encoding failure

    Transience- unused info. fades

    Blocking- unable to access stored info….tip of your tongue

    Misattribution- confusing the source of the info.

    7 sins of Memory


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    5. Suggestibility- the lingering effects of misinformation

    Leading questions

    6.Bias-belief- colored recollections

    7. Persistence-unwanted memories won’t go away


    Blocking demo

    Blocking Demo

    • Oslo

    • Ankara

    • Nairobi

    • Montevideo

    • Lhasa

    • Canberra

    • Lisbon

    • Bucharest

    • Port- au- Prince

    • Sofia

    • Seoul

    • Baghdad

    • Nicosia


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    • Nicosia

    • Manila

    • Managua

    • Helsinki

    • Bogota

    • Ottawa

    • Bangkok

    • Caracas

    • Juneau

    • Santa Fe

    • Pierre

    • Jefferson City

    • Topeka

    • Dover


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    27. Raleigh

    28. Montpellier

    29.Olympia

    30. Cheyenne

    31.Jackson

    32. Concord

    33. Boise

    34. Springfield

    35. Harrisburg

    36. Salem

    37. Helena

    38. Hartford

    39. Lansing

    40. Augusta


    Forgetting

    Forgetting

    • Forgetting is a result of either:

    • Encoding Failure

    • Storage Decay OR

    • Retrieval Failure


    Forgetting as encoding failure

    Forgetting As Encoding Failure

    • Information never enters the memory system

    • Attention is selective

      • we cannot attend to everything in our environment

    • William James said that we would be as bad off if we remembered everything as we would be if we remembered nothing

    • Change Blindness

      • Penny


    Encoding failure which penny is the real deal

    Encoding Failure: Which Penny is the Real Deal?


    Penny

    Penny

    • Which way does Lincoln Face? To the Left or Right?

    • Is anything written above his head? If yes, what it is?

    • Is anything below his head? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the left of his face? If so, what is it?

    • Is anything written to the right of his face? If so, what is it?


    Penny1

    Penny

    • Lincoln faces to the right

    • Above his head it say’s “ In god We Trust”

    • Below his head is nothing

    • To his left it says” liberty”

    • To his right is the year the coin was minted


    More encoding failures

    More Encoding Failures

    • What is the color of the top stripe of the American flag?

      • Red

        2. The bottom Stripe?

      • Red

        3. How many red and white stripes does it have?

      • 7 red and 6 white


    More encoding failures1

    More Encoding Failures

    4. Most wooden pencils are not round. How many sides dot hey typically have?

    • Six

      5. In what hand does the Statue of Liberty hold her torch?

    • Right


    Storage decay

    Over time we just forget things

    Storage Decay


    Retrieval failure

    Forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory

    Google

    Retrieval Failure


    Forgetting and spanish learned

    100%

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage of

    original

    vocabulary

    retained

    Retention

    drops,

    then levels off

    1 3 5 9½ 14½ 25 35½ 49½

    Time in years after completion of Spanish course

    Forgetting and Spanish Learned


    Forgetting as interference

    Forgetting As Interference

    • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of other information

      • Proactive(forward acting) Interference

        • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information

          • New Phone Number

          • New schedule


    Forgetting as interference1

    Forgetting As Interference

    • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference

      • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old information

        • Teacher learning new names

        • Take a break after learning


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