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Chapter Overview. IP IPX NetBEUI AppleTalk. Network Layer Protocols. Responsible for end-to-end communications on an internetwork Contrast with data-link layer protocols, which provide communications on the same local area network (LAN). IP Encapsulation. IP Functions. Encapsulation

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Chapter Overview

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Chapter overview

Chapter Overview

  • IP

  • IPX

  • NetBEUI

  • AppleTalk


Network layer protocols

Network Layer Protocols

  • Responsible for end-to-end communications on an internetwork

  • Contrast with data-link layer protocols, which provide communications on the same local area network (LAN)


Ip encapsulation

IP Encapsulation


Ip functions

IP Functions

  • Encapsulation

  • Addressing

  • Routing

  • Fragmentation

  • Protocol identification


The ip datagram format

The IP Datagram Format


Ip addresses

IP Addresses

  • Internet Protocol (IP) is the only network layer protocol with its own addressing system.

  • IP addresses are 32 bits long.

  • IP addresses have two parts: a network identifier and a host identifier.

  • IP addresses are assigned to network interface adapters, not to computers.

  • The Source IP Address field in the IP header always identifies the computer that generated the packet.

  • The Destination IP Address field in the IP header always identifies the packet’s final destination.


End systems and intermediate systems

End Systems and Intermediate Systems


Fragmentation

Fragmentation

  • Routers connect networks that support different-sized packets.

  • The largest packet size supported by a network is called its maximum transmission unit (MTU).

  • When a packet is too large to be forwarded to a particular network, the router splits it into fragments.

  • Each fragment is encapsulated with a header and is transmitted as a separate packet.

  • Fragments are not reassembled until they reach their final destination.

  • Fragments can themselves be fragmented.


Fragmentation cont

Fragmentation (Cont.)


Protocol field values

Protocol Field Values


The ipx standard

The IPX Standard

  • Developed by Novell for use with NetWare

  • Proprietary; never published as a public standard

  • Reverse engineered by Microsoft to create NWLink


Ipx functions

IPX Functions

  • Routing

  • Addressing

  • Protocol identification


The ipx header format

The IPX Header Format


Ipx addressing

IPX Addressing

  • Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) uses

    • Separate node and network addresses

    • Network interface adapter hardware addresses for node addresses

  • Network addresses

    • Are assigned by administrators

    • Do not need to be registered


Netbeui characteristics

NetBEUI Characteristics

  • Original Microsoft Windows default networking protocol

  • Designed for small local area networks (LANs)

  • Does not support Internet communications

  • Does not need configuration

  • Can be used to troubleshoot Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration protocols


Netbios names

NetBIOS Names

  • Assigned to computers during Windows installation

  • Sixteen characters long; the sixteenth character is a resource identifier

  • Can identify computers, domain controllers, users, groups, and other resources

  • Have no network identifier (which is why NetBEUI is nonroutable)


The nbf protocol format

The NBF Protocol Format


Protocols using nbf

Protocols Using NBF

  • Name Management Protocol (NMP)

  • Session Management Protocol (SMP)

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

  • Diagnostic and Monitoring Protocol (DMP)


Appletalk data link layer options

AppleTalk Data-Link Layer Options

  • LocalTalk

  • EtherTalk

  • Fast EtherTalk

  • TokenTalk

  • FDDITalk


Datagram delivery protocol

Datagram Delivery Protocol

  • AppleTalk’s network layer protocol

  • Provides packet addressing, routing, and protocol identification

  • Has short-format and long-format packet headers


Appletalk addressing

AppleTalk Addressing

  • AppleTalk computers have a unique 8-bit node ID that is self-assigned.

  • AppleTalk networks can have no more than 254 nodes.

  • AppleTalk uses 16-bit network numbers for routing.

  • Computers obtain network numbers using the Zone Information Protocol (ZIP).

  • Computer processes are identified by 8-bit socket numbers.


Appletalk addressing cont

AppleTalk Addressing (Cont.)

  • Network numbers, node IDs, and socket numbers are expressed as three decimal numbers, separated by periods.

  • AppleTalk computers resolve node IDs into hardware addresses, using the AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP).

  • AppleTalk computers also have friendly names and groups of computers called zones.


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • Network layer protocols are responsible for end-to-end communications across the network.

  • IP is a connectionless protocol that encapsulates transport layer data into datagrams.

  • IPX is a proprietary standard that performs routing, addressing, and protocol identification.

  • NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is used by small Windows networks for LAN networking.

  • AppleTalk provides basic networking to small networks.


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