Water resources assessment
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Water Resources Assessment. Main Resources Surface water Groundwater Unconventional Tools Flood routing/delineation models Runoff models GIS Finite element Finite difference Lumped parameters models. Q in. S. Q out. Surface Water. General Equation I(t) – O(t) = Δ S/ Δ t

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Water resources assessment
Water Resources Assessment

  • Main Resources

    • Surface water

    • Groundwater

    • Unconventional

  • Tools

    • Flood routing/delineation models

    • Runoff models

    • GIS

    • Finite element

    • Finite difference

    • Lumped parameters models


Surface water

Qin

S

Qout

Surface Water

  • General Equation

    I(t) – O(t) = ΔS/Δt

  • Oin Inputs

    • Precipitation

    • Base flow

  • Oin Outputs

    • E/ET

    • Infiltration

    • Intakes


System boundaries
System Boundaries

  • Reservoir

    • Balance

      ΔS/Δt=(P*Ares+Qin)-(E*Ares+Qout)

    • Residence Time

      S/I(t)

  • Watershed

    ΔS/Δt=(P*A)-(ET*A+Qout)


Groundwater
Groundwater

  • Definitions

    • Saturated Zone: VWater=Vvoids

    • Unsaturated Zone: VWater < Vvoids

    • Moisture Content: VWater < Vtotal

    • Voids/Pores: allow the flow of water

    • Water Table: surface where the water pressure in the pores equals Zero

    • Porosity: n = Vvoids /Vtotal (~0 - 0.7)

    • Hydraulic conductivity [L/T]= represents how easily water can flow through formation

      • Gravel >50 m/day

      • Course Sand: K = 30-50 m/day

      • Fine sand: K = 10-30 m/day

      • Silt: K = 1-10 m/day

      • Clay: K < 1 m/day


Groundwater1
Groundwater

  • Definitions

    • Formations types with respect to water bearing

      • Aquifer = permeable layer that contains and transmits water in large quantities

        • Confined

        • Unconfined

      • Aquiclude = impermeable layer that may contain water but transmissivity is very low

      • Aquitard = semi permeable layer that transmits water in the vertical direction only

      • Aquifuge = impermeable layer that neither contains nor transmits water


General cross section of gaza aquifer

Clay

calcareous sandstone,

unconsolidated sands

Eocene chalks

and limestone

marls, marine shales, and claystones

General Cross Section of Gaza Aquifer


Groundwater2

Intrinsic permeability

Groundwater

  • Darcy


Groundwater3
Groundwater

  • Average pore velocity

  • Problem:

    A tracer traveled 3 days and 6 hours between 2 wells that are 20 m apart. Water elevation difference between the wells is 0.5m, porosity n=0.15. Estimate v, q, K


Groundwater balance
Groundwater Balance

Ss [1/L] = Specific Storage = volume of water that a unit volume

of aquifer releases under a unit decline in hydraulic head

S [dimensionless] = Storativity = volume of water that a unit surface

area of aquifer releases under a unit decline in hydraulic head


Groundwater balance1
Groundwater Balance

  • Pollutants transport mechanisms

    • Advection

    • Diffusion

    • Dispersion

Mechanical dispersion coefficient

Diffusion coefficient








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