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Particulate, Gas & Vapor (Sampling Equipment)

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Particulate, Gas & Vapor (Sampling Equipment). PARTICULATE. Definitions . Aerosols – the dispersion of solid or liquid particles in the gaseous medium Dust – dispersion of solid particles in the gaseous medium

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definitions
Definitions
  • Aerosols – the dispersion of solid or liquid particles in the gaseous medium
  • Dust – dispersion of solid particles in the gaseous medium
  • Fumes – solid particles in a gaseous medium formed by condensation of solid materials (vapor)
  • Smoke – usually but not necessarily consist of solid particles
shape size and distribution
Shape, Size and Distribution
  • Various shape, size and density of particulate
  • AED is the diameter of a unit density sphere having the same settling velocity as the particle concern
  • Polydisperse dust cloud (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation)
aerodynamic behavior in airstream
Aerodynamic Behavior In Airstream
  • Impaction – proportional to the momentum i.e. mass and velocity
  • Sedimentation – proportional to its diameter
  • Diffusion – for particles < 0.1um
size selective and selected area of deposition
Size Selective and Selected Area of Deposition
  • Nasopharyngeal deposition (upper respiratory tract) – 7 to 20um
  • Tracheobronchial (conducting airways) – 5 to 7um
  • Alveolar region (gas exchange area) – 0.5 – 5um
inhaled dust fractions sampling instrument
Inhaled Dust Fractions (Sampling Instrument)
  • Respirable dust – the dust fraction that will penetrate to the unciliated portion of the lungs
purpose of sampling
Purpose of Sampling
  • Compliance with the requirement of the law
  • Health risk assessment
  • Epidemiological study
  • Assessment of control measures
type of sampling
Type of Sampling
  • Area sampling
  • Personal sampling
type of sample equipment
Type of Sample & Equipment
  • Total dust
  • Inspirable dust – 7 hole sampler, IOM sampler, close face sampler
  • Respirable dust – BMRC horizontal elutriator, AEC cyclone
  • Thoracic dust – vertical elutriator
  • Fibers – open face sampler with cowl
sampling equipment
Sampling Equipment
  • Real time – piezobalance, dust counter etc
  • Non real time – filtration, impaction (cascade impactor)
definitions13
Definitions
  • Gas – a state of matter in which a substance completely fills the region in which it is contained; has very low density and viscosity; can expand and contract greatly in response to changes in temperature and pressure; and easily diffuses into other gases e.g., CO, CO2, HCN, NH4, SO2, H2S, N2O, O3, Formaldehyde, phosgene, arsine, vinyl chloride etc
slide14
Vapour – the gaseous state or form of a substance which is normally in the liquid or solid state at room temperature and pressure. The liquid or solid may be reduced to the vapor by the action of heat. A vapor can be liquefied by a suitable increase in pressure e.g., toluene, xylene, alcohol, C2S, benzene, carbon tetrachloride etc
physiological effects
Physiological Effects
  • Carcinogens – vinyl chloride, benzene, benzidine, B-napthylamine, formaldehyde
  • Systemic poisons – C2S, parathion, hexane, chlorinated hydrocarbon
  • Asphyxiation – CO, CH4, HS, Na Nitrite
  • Irritation – acid, alkali, O3, N2O, phosgene
  • Anesthetic/narcosis – alcohol, ketones
  • Sensitizer – TDI, formaldehyde
physicochemical properties
Physicochemical Properties
  • Solubility
  • Melting and boiling points
  • Vapor pressure
  • Vapor density or relative density
  • Flash point
slide17
CSDS
  • Physicochemical properties
purpose of sampling18
Purpose of Sampling
  • Compliance with the requirement of the law
  • Health risk assessment
  • Epidemiological study
  • Assessment of control measures
type of sampling19
Type of Sampling
  • Area sampling
  • Personal sampling
sampling equipment20
Sampling Equipment
  • Real time
  • Non real time
sampling equipment examples
Sampling Equipment (examples)
  • Charcoal tubes with pump
  • Passive sampler (diffusion membrane)
  • Bubbler (midget impinger)
  • MIRAN
  • Portable gas chromatography
  • Detector tubes
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