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Chapter 12. Mongols, Ming Dynasty, and East Asia 1200-1500. Mongol Empires. Mongol Empires Genghis Khan (Temujin) – Supreme Leader Rise to Power Mongol Political Organization. Selected leader not by family or tribal ties but on their talents and loyalty.

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12 l.jpg

Chapter 12

Mongols, Ming Dynasty, and East Asia 1200-1500


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Mongol Empires

  • Mongol Empires

    • Genghis Khan (Temujin) – Supreme Leader

    • Rise to Power

    • Mongol Political Organization.

      • Selected leader not by family or tribal ties but on their talents and loyalty.

      • Most important institution was the army.


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Mongol Empires

  • Mongol Armies

    • Equestrian skills.

    • Archery skills

    • Mobility.

    • Resistance to Mongols:

      • None=spared lives.

      • Resistance = death to entire population

      • Exception was to craftsmen, artisans, etc.


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Mongol Conquest


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Mongol Empires

  • Mongol conquests of Northern China

    • 1211, Mongol raiding parties entered Jurgen controlled lands in Northern China.

    • By 1215, the Jurgen capital fell to Genghis Khan.

    • Capital was named Khanbaliq (City of the Khan).

    • Fighting between the Mongols and Jurgens continued until 1234 but by 1220, the Mongols controlled most of Northern China.


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Mongol Empires

Mongol Conquest of Persia

1218, Genghis Khan sent envoys to open trade and diplomatic relations with Khwarazam Shah who has succeed the Seljuk Turks.

The Shah murdered the Khan’s envoys.

In 1219, Genghis Khan lead his armies west into Persia.

The Mongols ruthlessly destroyed cities, qanats, and the agricultural base of Persia.

The Mongols now controlled and vast area of land.


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Mongol Empires - 1300


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Mongol Empires

  • By the time of Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, he had laid the foundations for a vast empire that stretched from Asia to the Middle East.

  • However, he failed to establish an effective government to run his empire.

  • Local Mongol overlords were put in the conquered lands to supervise local administrators and collect tribute.


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Contributions of Genghis Khan

  • Religious Tolerance

  • Written Language

  • Support for Arts and Crafts

  • Legal Code


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Mongol Empires

  • After Genghis Khan’s death, the Mongols continued to expand their empire.

  • His son, Ogodei, established the Mongol capital at Karakorum. From 1240-1260, it attracted merchants, ambassadors, missionaries, and others from Eurasia.


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Mongol Leadership


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Mongol Empires

  • During this time, the empire was ruled by the Great Khan, who ruled from the capital.

    • The empire was divided into 4 regional empires:

      • China – The Great Khan

      • Khanate of Jagadai – Central Asia

      • Ilkhan – Persia

      • Golden Horde – Russia


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Mongol Empires

  • Although the Great Khan was superior, the regional rulers constantly fought against each other.

  • When Ogodei died in 1241, these regional conflicts erupted.

  • In 1265, Kubilia seized power. The other Khans refused to accept his authority.

  • Karakorum was destroyed in the fighting.


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Mongol Empires

  • By 1271, Khubilia declared himself the emperor and founded the Yuan Dynasty.

    • Khubilia ruled China during the Mongols’ golden age.

    • He supported the arts, the spread of Buddhism, and tolerance for other religions.

    • In 1279, he destroyed the Song Dynasty in southern China.


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Mongol Empires

  • Khubilia’s successes in conquest were limited. In the 1280’s he attempted to invade Southeast Asia. However, the Mongols tactics were largely unsuccessful in the hot, humid climates of the region but the Mongols were able to establish “tribute states” in Vietnam.

  • His attempted invasions of Japan were met with defeat – kamikaze (Divine Winds).

  • He was more successful in adopting some Chinese customs.


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Mongol Empires

  • Khubilia established his capital in Beijing.

  • He used Chinese aristocrats to help him governed the empire in China.

  • He included Confucian values and ideals in his laws.

  • He abolished many of the regional Chinese governments and standardized the government.


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Mongol Empires

  • He changed the system of taxation from direct taxation to tax farming.

  • Status of individuals were based upon where they were from or who their ancestors were. (Social hierarchy).

  • Established districts for the purpose of census taking and administration.


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Mongol Empires

  • Throughout the Mongol Empire, they adopted the local customs and traditions.

    • Il Khanate – Mongols gradually converted into Islam.

    • The exception to this was China.

      • Chinese were forbidden to learn the Mongol language or intermarry. Farmers were forced from the lands. Estimated of 40 % of the Chinese population died of starvation.


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Contributions of Khubilia Khan

  • Established an administration to govern China

  • Supported agriculture, trade, and crafts

  • Patronized painting, the decorative arts, and theater

  • Provided funds and support for Buddhist monasteries, Confucian scholarship, Islamic mosques, and Nestorian Christian churches


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Mongol Influences in China

  • Stabilized trade and economy.

  • Gentry population shifted from countryside to cities.

  • Introduction of Mongolian language influenced dialect of Mandarin.

  • Massive population shifts from Northern to Southern China.

    • Bubonic Plague


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Mongol Influences on Trade

  • Mongols depended on agricultural peoples they conquered.

  • Initially, trade on Silk Road was disrupted by Mongols.

  • Later, the Mongols protected and stabilized the trade routes and the merchants.


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Mongols Influence on Diplomacy and Missionaries

  • Mongols maintained embassies in all conquered lands. They also had diplomatic relations with Vietnam, Korea, India, and Europe.

  • Protection of the trade routes allowed missionaries to spread religion throughout their empire.

  • Mongols also encouraged the resettlement of peoples in their empire.

    • Craftsmen, artisans, skilled workers.


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Decline of the Mongol Empire

  • Il Khanate – Economic collapse lead by uncontrolled spending.

  • China – Economic failure along with inflation and internal unrest.

    • Beginning in the 1320’s, there were a series of civil wars, political assassinations, and power struggles.


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Decline of the Mongol Empires

  • By 1368, the Chinese had forced the Mongols to leave China and return to the steppes of Mongolia.

  • Khanate of Chaghatia and the Golden Horde in Russia continued after the collapse of the Great Khanate and the Il Khanate.


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Ming Dynasty 1368-1500

  • In 1368, a former soldier, bandit, and Buddhism Monk named Zhu Yangzhang establishes the Ming Dynasty.

  • He organized his dynasty into a highly centralized and military empire.

    • Zhu sought to remove any remaining Mongol influences in China.

    • Trade and the economic system was impacted.

    • Removal of the paper money economy.


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Ming Dynasty

  • Ming rulers did keep the Mongols in position of interpreters and many of the innovations introduced during the Yuan Dynasty.

  • Zheng He’ journeys from 1405-31.

    • Chinese Treasure Junks (pg. 380)

    • Muslim

    • Effective ambassador to Middle East on his journeys.

    • Mission was twofold; see what the outside world had to offer and visit Chinese merchants and ensure their alliance to the emperor.


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